Importance Of Kant's Categorical Imperative

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Q1(a)
Jeremy Bentham’s effort to make the ethical decision making scientific was by making the idea of good or happiness a purely quantifiable hedonistic calculus. Bentham argues that if the idea of ‘good’ is a corollary of happiness then there must be a way to determine the quantity of that happiness as a number. Since human beings act as to maximize their utility for pleasure and try to avoid pain in all their dealings, therefore they act in such a way as to make choices which render more pleasure and reduce pain. Although, not knowing, yet people make choices by quantifying the results of their made choices in terms of pleasure and pain. Therefore, it is possible to make ethical decisions on
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Since categorical imperative is based on the idea of universal maxims and free will of all the individuals who must act according to the rule that one should only act as if one would like to his action become a universal law itself. Therefore, Kant’s categorical imperative is not a subjective position.
Kant’s categorical imperative has two components in it namely good will and acting in such a way that the action has an ability to become a universal law. So, first, we analyze his notion of good will and then we will move towards the action
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In the realm of morality, good will is the most important of all the virtues because it lies at the core of moral actions and all others become worthless and harmful if the “will “ of an individual is not “good”. For the ‘will’ part, there has to be autonomy (acting freely as the person wants to act and decides himself take an action) and not the heteronomy (in which others decide how an individual should act). For Kant, good will is the individual thinks to act in a certain way and since every person has this ability, therefore, everyone is a person and can a free person can decide for himself whatever he wants to do. Goodwill is equivalent to a good person who acts in a good manner. Thus every person should nurture his good will in order to become good. For example, if a person has a lot of wealth but he has not a good will, he will spend his wealth, not in moral manners but to follow the bad or evil by spending it in a lavish way which leads to the moral degeneration of individual and the whole society. Hence, good will leads to good
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