One of the goals of personality psychology is to develop general understanding of each specific trait and the way they interact with each other to create such a variety of personalities. One of the traits that have attracted a considerable amount of attention is impulsivity. Impulsivity is viewed as acting in a spontaneous way, or not giving much thought to potential consequences of actions before they are carried out. Typically viewed in a negative light, Charles Carver and a few other personality psychologists do make an argument that there can be both positive and negative aspects of impulsivity. As he points out, impulsivity can be something very positive and refreshing and in many cases is harmless.
Humanistic theory also fits well with other approaches. This theory also is well incorporated into the different views on human change. If I were to evaluate a theory and choose the one that I had to accept then I would take away something from all of the theories that we learned about. Theories are created through existing data. However, a theory may not necessarily be correct but it does give us a better understanding of concepts in that it gives people to either prove them correct or wrong.
The construct validity of the PANAS was questioned due to the selection of items for the subscales to show that each was independent. The items, however, may not adequately represent their supposed constructs. Watson and Clark stated that fear is not related to NA but “scared” and “afraid” are both included in the negative affect scale. This argues that the construct validity of the test is low because it may not test what it is meant to test by adding unrelated items. If the PANAS added either more terms or more questions, without repetition, there is little doubt that both reliability and validity could increase.
... ... middle of paper ... ...tive therapy and some mental exercise. Although the results to this study did not support that memories triggered emotional response were suppressed behaviorally through complete the experiment, I believe that this study lays a good foundation to lead to this helpful solution for many individuals suffering from intrusive thoughts. I think a nest step would be to survey a larger participant pool and to see if there is a way to enhance to experiment to maybe add in being able to suppress behavioral response to emotional memories, effectively helping to remove some stress on those who suffer from intrusive thoughts due to cognitive disorders. References Sakaki, M., Kuhbandner, C., Mather, M., & Pekrun, R. (2014). Memory suppression can help people 'unlearn' behavioral responses—But only for nonemotional memories.
However, this may not always be the case. If a person holds unrealistic perceptions of oneself that ar... ... middle of paper ... ...m that positive illusions lead to mental health. The basis of their argument is that Taylor and Brown’s evidence is weak. Colvin argues that a normative finding does not do a good job at separating the accurate individuals from the inaccurate, self-enhancing individuals. Ranking oneself relative to “most others” is largely problematic because people vary.
A lot is known about self-esteem and conforming peer pressure separately. There is not much known about the effects of one on the other. Peer pressure, the feelings of pressure to engage in something that those you associate with are doing, when it works negatively is a large problem and can cause conflicts throughout life. Conforming to peer pressure can have both positive and negative effects. The pressure can cause a person who conforms to make themselves better or worse.
It is a reliable measure for the construct but we should not ignore the role of unconscious and introspective measurement of self-esteem. However, there is still concern about the social desirability effect on the self-report measurement. Previous research examined that participants had a tendency to have self-deception and impressive management on the measurement (Paulhus, 1998). It is not necessary to hold the view that self-reflections only process in conscious level. There are evidence revealed that many social cognitive functions operates in a unconscious evaluation (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995).
(2003) investigated the impact of social support on cognitive dissonance arousal in their experiment, “I’m a Hypocrite, but So Is Everyone Else: Group Support and the Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance.” The psychologists aimed to test the impact of social support on dissonance by testing two hypotheses. While the results that were attained in the study are not more adequate to use than previous experiments, the hypothesis of Mkimmie et al. (2003) offers new insight into the cognitive dissonance theory. In addition, the theory highlights the importance of group-derived cognitions, a topic that has been often overlooked in subsequent research. To conduct the experiment, the researchers first looked at previous theories and then extrapolated evidence from their results to develop a new theory about cognitive dissonance in a social context.
While the mentioned articles and studies may not directly be related, it is reasonable to make a few assumptions about procrastination from each of them that are true for all cases, despite the complexity of this topic. Tice and Baumister’s research article shows solid evidence as to how procrastination may have negative effects on academic performance. Although this may seem to be a reasonable assumption to make, if their research is compared with research done in other articles, this is essentially only surface deep. Recall Hillary Green-Lerman’s article as well. The correlation between the the timeline the student gave themselves to do the assignments definitely had an effect on the score of their grades.
Emotional and Rational Appeals Abstract In many studies, data has been led to suggest that rational messages may encourage the generation of content based cognitive responses and lead to attitudes heavily influenced by these cognitions. Studies have also led to suggest that people in negative moods are affected by the quality of persuasive messages. Using manipulations techniques, bad mood may result in a different interpretation of anything from a verbal argument to a literal message. Even though most studies indicate that good mood manipulations may not have that much effect on one's perception of a scenario, further investigation may do away with that theory. Persuasion in Response to Emotional and Rational Appeals Much research has been done to try and indicate that emotional appeals may influence attitude change.