This paper explores the numerous effects neglect has on a child's development. If a child lacks the necessary attachment and stimulation during the critical first years, they will have profound developmental issues throughout life. Possibly the most important aspects that are affected by neglect are the brain and a child's social development. Looking into the case of the Romanian orphans, readers will be able to see the harsh consequences. Severe neglect is child abuse that often goes unnoticed and is hard to reverse.
2009) The greatest influential factor affecting spoken language outcomes in any early intervention program is early amplification and immediate and ongoing linguistic stimulation for children who are deaf or heard-of-hearing (Papsin & Gordon, 2007; Moog & Geers, 2010; Zimmerman et al., 2009). Early amplification and linguistic stimulation, such as continuous language input and output, takes advantage of neuroplasticity within the auditory cortex region of the brain (Fallon, Irvin, & Shepard, 2008; Peterson, Miyomato, & Pisoni, 2010). The later a child with deafness is amplified the more unused portions of the auditory system are re-organized and occupied by other sensory information (Peterson et al., 2010). As unused portions of the auditory cortex are occupied by other sensory systems, the ability to decipher transmitted sound diminishes (Fallon et al., 2008; Peterson et al., 2010). As a child matures organization of neurons within the auditory system become more permanent and progressively difficult to rework (Fallon et al., 2008; Peterson et al., 2010).
Physical abuse is defined as the deliberate use of physical force against another resulting in harm or potential bodily injury. When exposed to this form of abuse from birth to the ages of three, there can be detrimental effects to the health of a child (Vinchon et al, 2005). These health effects include physical injuries such as bruises and broken bones. Physical abuse can also lead to future health problems such as “heart disease, obesity, liver disease, cancer and chronic lung disease” (Lazenbatt 2010, ... ... middle of paper ... ...loping cognitive, emotional and social problems that may continue throughout the lifespan. Child abuse can also impede on the important attachment relationship infants have with their primary caregiver at early ages.
However, (ADHD) supposed to be basically related to neuropsychological (Tannock and Brown, 2000). One of the momentous theories in ADHD has indicated that this disorder is developmental disorder which often includes the inability to perform functions with the main deficit in the control of behaviour. Consequently, these behavioural disabilities might lead to a shortfall in other aspects of the executive functions, for instance working memory, arrangement and verbal fluency (Panzer and Viljoen, 2005). A group of researchers observed that the children who suffer from ADHD and have proof of the shortage of these children in the executive functions (Chhabildas, Pennington and Willcutt, 2001; Berlin et al., 2004). Cognitive deteriorations in the executive performance is evident in children clearly with troubles in social and emotional functions (Debonis,Ylvisaker and Kundert, 2000).
Researchers have described the English language as an opaque orthography, made up of three layers: the basic layer comprises of the sound layer; increasing in complexity and variation is the patterned and meaning layer, and last but not least is the additional borrowed words from other languages. (Mesmer&Griffith,2006) Phonics is important to teach as Mesmer& Griffith (2006) explains because it unlocks a large proportion of the English language, it does this through a number of ways. Phonics helps children, through strategies such as knowledge of the alphabet code and approximately 44 phonemes, to able to tackle word recognition through three different methods. Firstly, it allows the reader to break down and blend a word, an effective strategy to tackle unidentified words. Secondly ,it allows the reader to decode a word, until such time as it becomes fused into memory and prediction.
Levy-Shift and Gili Einat concluded that the reason why premature babies have these problems is that they are generally less intelligent than full terms. They had more trouble learning, which could lead to negative emotional reactions. They say that premature children sometimes have impaired neurological processes that underlie cognitive dysfunction which is detrimental to behavioral and emotional functioning (Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, v.23 p 329). Premature children are less responsive, less alert, and less active when they are babies, which can lead to a bad start to the mother-child relationship.
These researched consequences shed light on the importance of preventive actions and hearing health awareness for parents, educators, and health professionals. NOISE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Early noise exposure has been shown to affect cognitive development in children. These adverse effects to cognitive function include reading comprehension, long-term memory, and attention/concentration (Corra et. al, 2009). A review by Bridget M. Shield outlines “the effects of chronic noise exposure on children are problems with sustained attention and visual attention; poorer auditory discrimination and speech perception; poorer memory for tasks; and poorer reading ability” (Shield et.
Leading to this Bowlby believed that once this form of attachment breaks, the damage would be permanent and the bond between the infant and primary care-giver can no longer be fixed. He stated that this loss of attachment can “entirely cripple the capacity to make relationships” (Bowlby 1952, pp 11-12). Henceforth resulting in serious long term cognitive, social and emotional difficulties for the child in the future. Additionally, Bowlby’s maternal deprivation is supported by Harry Harlow’s research in the infant rhesus monkeys
Infections, poor nutrition, and exposure to toxic substances such as nicotine and alcohol are other factors that can contribute to CP (Colledge, 1999). Comparatively, factors during labor may contribute to CP as well. When a child is born prematurely the chances of he or she of having CP increases (Colledge, 1999). The baby’s position during birt... ... middle of paper ... ... Cerebral Palsy. Retrieved November 24, 2011, from http://www.cerebralpalsycanada.com/Cerebral_Palsy_Types_and_Treatment.html Colledge, N. (1999).
According to dyslexic researchers, Emma Sumner, Vincent Connelly, and Anna L. Barnett dyslexia shows it itself via, “ …significant difficulties with acquiring orthographic knowledge and [children with dyslexia] show poor phonological skills” (Sumner, Connelly, and Barnett, 2013). Owen Barden, another dyslexia researcher states, “Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty which mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills… It is characterized by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities” (Barden, 2014). Finally, according to the International Dyslexia Association the formal definition of dyslexia is, “Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction” (International Dyslexia Association).