It is composed of myeloid tissue which is spongy and slightly gelatinous in texture. There are a few reasons why bone marrow is of importance to us. Firstly it is the site of production of undifferentiated cells, known as multipotent stem cells. These stem cells can later be transcribed into a variety of different cell types but are mostly transcribed into erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are vital to our bodies homeostasis because they provide ... ... middle of paper ... ...the T-cell can either produce antibodies, or can kill the cell entirely.
Tumor cells produce antigens that can be recognized by either specific immunity, or by innate immunity via natural killer (NK) cells (5). These statements explain the extraordinary importance of inflammation and how it can act as a double-edged sword: under specific stimulation they can produce factors and free radicals able to directly destroy tumor cells. However, it appears that some tumors can use the inflammatory responses for their own benefit to grow and move throughout the body. Aim and Methods It is clear that we need to raise our knowledge about inflammation... ... middle of paper ... ...e production procedures do not survive, and only a small proportion can survive, a large numbers of animals therefore required to produce transgenic mice (20). Conclusion Inflammation is a multi-factorial player in the development of cancer.
Unfortunately however researchers found that medical treatments developed in animals rarely translated to humans and warned that “patients and physicians should remain cautious about extrapolating the finding of prominent animal research to the care of human disease … poor replication of even high-quality animal studies should be expected by those who conduct clinical research.” (The Journal of the American Medical Association) treatments should be assigned so that each experimental unit has a known, often equal, probability of receiving a given treatment known as randomization; there are often sources of variation, known or unknown, which could bias the results. Ethical implications such as when the suffering is minimized in a... ... middle of paper ... ...ls that can help rebuild damaged cells in the body by mimicking the healthy function of the damaged area. The protein bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) targets the cells responsible for brain cancer, thus counteracting the progression of the tumor. This process destroys the cancer’s cell ability to grow and divide, paving for a new type of treatment for patients with disease. Correspondingly, they have higher levels of certain enzymes that regulate the cell cycle.
The response made by T cells is referred to as the cell mediated immune response. Killer T cells cause cells infected with the virus particles to lyse. T cells in the thymus gland, sometimes referred to as thymocytes manufacture and release molecules called lymphokines, which include interferon. Interferon prevents the replication of the virus. Bibliography NAS Respiration and Coordination - John Adds Collins Biology - Marcus Barbor Collins Advanced Biology - Michael Kent
The B cells are found in the bone marrow and released into the lymphatic systems and blood. It develops into plasma cells and secretes antibodies. The T cells undergoes processes in the thymus where there are two types of cells being made, namely the CD4+ helper cells , and the CD8+ cytotoxi... ... middle of paper ... ...de an endosome and connects with a lysosome which has acidic enzymes that kills and digests and forms a phagolysome. Unfortunately, this process does not always goes as planned because if the capsule of the pathogen is made out of complex sugars it would be hard to cling on to. For efficient binding with the phagocytes, the foreign pathogens need to be coated with complement proteins.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a group of genes, which are located on chromosome 6. These genes are involved in mediating white blood cells to provoke immune responses in the body. HLA helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins/foreign cells made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. It is known as a ‘loci’ of genes, which encode for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); and so HLA corresponds to the MHC. The function of MHC molecules is to bind peptide fragments derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by T cells, to then be destroyed by either macrophages or B cell activation.
2013).The main biochemical characteristics of apoptosis include caspase activation and DNA fragmentation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997, Du, Fang et al. 2000). Apoptosis is induced by various physiological or toxic signals such as chemotherapeutics, DNA damage, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007).
3. MicroRNA-155 MicroRNA-155 is highly expressed in lung cancer, breast cancer, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), Hodgkin’s disease, pediatric Burkitt’s lymphoma, pancreatic tumour and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (33). MicroRNA-155 has an essential function in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal centre reaction to produce an optimal T cell dependent antibody response, at least in part, by regulating cytokine production (34). MicroRNA-155 also participates in other cellular processes such as interferon production in natural killer cells, lymphoma cell motility, dendritic cell differentiation and function and skeletal muscle differentiation etc. (35, 36) 4.
In this paper, it is demonstrated that the cell response to vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) and bacteria DNA is mediated by TLR7 and TLR9. Through the generation of TLR7 and TLR9-deficient mice, it was determined that TLR7 are required for responsiveness to both vesicular stomatitis viruses and TLR9 recognizes bacteria DNA. Both TLR7 and TLR9 deficient mice did not show any response to single stranded RNA viruses and non-methylated CpG bacteria DNA including inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the in vivo ability of vesicular stomatitis viruses and CpG bacteria DNA to stimulate IL-12 secretion depended on the functional activation of MyD88 and IRAK. These results present evidence for the requirement of TLR7 for single stranded RNA viruses and TLR9 for non-methylated CpG bacteria DNA to induced cellular effects.
It has been shown that platelets, which are transient cells in BM microenvironment, are important for metastasis of a variety of solid tumors (Figure 1). Platelets bind circulating tumor cells, protecting them against anoikis (a type of programmed cell death occurring due to detachment of the cell from surrounding ECM) as well as against the innate immune system (2, 56, 57). Platelet-derived TGF-β and direct contact between platelets and tumor cells synergistically activate TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB pathways, leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased invasion and metastasis (58). In addition, during platelet aggregation by breast cancer cells, platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces the release of IL-6 and IL-8 from breast cancer cells, which eventually lead to osteoclastic activation and bone resorption (59). Megakaryocyte ploidy is significantly higher in patients with metastatic disease.