Everything comes to be from out of its opposite, so that for instance a tall man becomes tall only because he was short before. Similarly, death being the opposite of life, and so living things come to be out of dead things and vice versa. This implies that there is a continuous cycle of life and death, so that when we die we do not stay dead, but come back to life after a period of time. Our soul never dies, however. It is the one thing that conti... ... middle of paper ... ... believes the soul is long-lived, and can outlive many bodies, but argues that this does not show that the soul is immortal.
In the final passage of the Phaedo, Plato provides his final proof, although it may be his last attempt to give his reasoning, it is not very convincing. Plato has some good points and reasoning to believe in the immortality of the soul, but his arguments often seem to make large assumptions without any concrete evidence. In this essay I will attempt to expose some flaws in Plato’s argument while showing how the conclusion can still be convincing for some. According to Plato talking through Socrates, whenever a soul occupies a body, it always brings life with it. This means that the soul is connected with life, and so cannot admit its opposite which is death.
Plato’s Theory of Forms Plato’s Phaedo follows the last hours of philosopher Socrates’ life before his impending execution. Socrates’ followers visit him in jail to try and glean a few last pieces of knowledge from their beloved teacher. The crux of their discussion deals with the question: What happens to souls after death? Socrates attempts to answer the age-old question for his pupils before he finds out firsthand. In his answer, Socrates argues that the soul is immortal and to support this assertion, the philosopher presents four arguments to his listeners: the Argument from Opposites, the Argument from Affinity, the Theory of Recollection, and the Theory of Forms.
As a result, Socrates provides arguments as to why he believed the soul was immortal and even though all his arguments lacked unconvincing evidence, he does bring up good points. In this paper I will talk about Socrates’ most and least convincing arguments on immortality, and explain what Socrates’ problem was with Anaxagoras. First and foremost, Socrates believed that when a person dies the body is what seems to die while the soul continues to live and exist. Although many suggested that when the body dies the soul dies with it, Socrates provides numerous arguments to prove his point otherwise. The arguments that were presented consisted of The argument of Reincarnation, The argument of Opposites, The argument of Recollection, and The argument of Forms.
In the book Plato 's Phaedo, Socrates argues that the soul will continue to exist, and that it will go on to a better place. The argument begins on the day of Socrates execution with the question of whether it is good or bad to die. In other words, he is arguing that the soul is immortal and indestructible. This argument is contrary to Cebes and Simmias beliefs who argue that even the soul is long lasting, it is not immortal and it is destroyed when the body dies. This paper is going to focus on Socrates four arguments for the soul 's immortality.
To begin, an examination of Plato’s arguments regarding the soul will be provided in order to thoroughly identify and discuss the philosophical issue found within the chosen passage. Succeeding the explanation will be a critical assessment of the eternal soul. Plato’s Argument In order to clearly grasped Plato’s argument of the soul one must first understand the definition of the body and soul. Plato saw the soul as an invisible pure force that directs and conducts the mind and visible impure body throughout ones existence and that the immortal soul dwells within the mortal body (Halvorson, Pg.3). Plato deeply believed that souls existed before they entered people’s bodies and that they are forever eternal and unchanging.
In his view on the immortality of the human psyche, he claims that the spirit and body are connected; they are not too distinct entities. With this proclamation he attempts to prove the existence of life after death by analyzing resurrection from a psychological perspective and through thought experiments. Hick deconstructs the Platonic notion of the duality between the soul and the body. Plato, one of the most influential Greek philosophers who has affected the realm of philosophy and religion, argues that the spirit is eternal and the body a vessel. For him the spirit and the body belong to different worlds: the spirit to the “unchanging realities…or universals or eternal ideas.” and the body to the sensible world.
The second way in which Socrates’ myth reinforces philosophy as care for the soul is by explaining the cycle which continues until the soul purifies itself through philosophy. This cycle only ends once the soul is purified by philosophy. The final way in which Socrates’ myth reinforces his recommendation of philosophy as care for the soul is by explaining how the pure souls of philosophers are rewarded. The souls of philosophers go to the ether to dwell among the gods. Philosophers attain the knowledge and truth which they spent their entire earthly life seeking when in the ether.
We must attempt to answer the questions: Are the arguments for immortality in the Phaedo used as a means for the soul to establish its own existence and independence from the corporal, and if this is the case, is the argument really a plea for living a life dedicated to philosophical inquiry rather than corporal pleasure ? Phaedo begins with a discussion between the visitors of Socrates on death and dying. Death, as defined by Socrates is the body and the soul coming to be separated apart from each other (Phaedo 64c). During this discussion Socrates makes claim that although philosophers should welcome death and that it is wrong to commit suicide without sign from the Gods. Cebes finds fault with this logic claiming that one would think the philosopher would resent being taken away from the ability to enact the will of the Gods.
Human beings are comprised of two separate entities, a body and a soul. The soul is immortal and cycles in nature and lives an infinite number of bodies. This paper will explore the immortality of the soul as discussed by Socrates in The Apology, Crito and Phaedo and significance of being a philosopher. The Apology is regarding Socrates defense of himself at the time of his trial. Socrates, a wise philosopher is brought in the courtroom and the Athenian jury convicts him on corrupting the youth of Athens and not believing in God.