“World Affairs Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine December 6, 1904.” [Available Online][cited June 20, 2008] Available from http://www.u-s-history.com/ Kennedy, David, Cohen, Lizabeth and Bailey, Thomas. “The American Pageant Volume II: Since 1865.” Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement took place. Black citizens of America were all part of a large, organized struggle for justice and equality. The burden of racism became too much to bear and black Americans, tired of waiting for change, joined forces to protest. It is often acknowledged that the nation that was built on the principles of liberty and democracy was the nation that denied certain people their right to those freedoms merely because of the color of their skin. Sadly, many innocent lives were robbed by cruel injustices of society during the Civil Rights Movement.
(2002). Revolutionary Worker, #1136. Retrieved April 19, 2008 from http://revcom.us/a/v23/1130-39/1136/enron_workers.htm. Sarbanes-Oxley Act. (2008).
The book, Up From Slavery, written by Booker Taliaferro Washington, profoundly touched me when I read it. Washington overcame many obstacles throughout his life. He became perhaps the most prominent black leader of his time. Booker T. Washington belived that African Americans could gain equality by improving their economic situation through education rather than by demanding equal rights. Washington’s life story was told during the mid to late 1800’s into the early 1900’s, in the time when the Emancipation Proclamation had gone into effect.
In the era of global black awakening following World War I, Garvey emerged as the best known, the most controversial, and, for many, the most attractive of a new generation of New Negro leaders. Representative Charles B. Rangel of New York has noted that "Garvey was one of the first to say that instead of blackness being a stigma, it should be a source of pride" (New York Times, 5 April 1987). Black expectations aroused by participation in World War I were dashed by the racial violence of the wartime and postwar years, and the disappointment evident in many black communities throughout the U.S., Africa, and the Caribbean allowed Garvey to draw dozens of local leaders to his side. Their ideas were not always strictly compatible with Garvey's, but their sympathy with his themes of "African redemption" and black self-support was instrumental in gathering support for the movement from a vast cross-section of African-American society. Similarly, Garvey's message was adopted by a broad cross-section of educated and semi-literate Africans and West Indians hungry for alternatives to white rule and oppression.
Richard Wright wanted to make a difference in the world and a difference he did make. Richard Wright was an important figure in American History because he stood astride the midsection of his time period as a battering ram, paving the way for many black writers who followed him, these writers were Ralph Ellison, Chester Himes, James Baldwin, Gwendolyn Brooks, Lorraine Hansberry, John Williams. In some ways he helped change the American society. Before anyone changes the world they must be born, so as many before him Richard Nathaniel Wright was born on September 4, 1908 near Natchez, Mississippi. Richard Wright was the grandson of four slaves and the son of a sharecropper in fact he was born on aon a Mississippi plantation.
ABC- CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 26 May 2011. Ware, Leland. “Carmichael Stokely (Kwame Ture) (1941-98), Civil Rights Activist.” Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture.
The Supreme Court was known for some of the most notorious decisions made in history, many in which included the cases, Marbury v. Madison, Scott v. Sandford, and United States v. Cruikshank. Despite these cases, the court did turn around and change their perspective and helped minorities achieve their civil rights. In 1915, the case of Guinn and Beal v. United States helped African Americans reassure their right to vote. In this case the Supreme Court considered the grandfather clause to be unconstitutional. The grandfather clause was a mechanism t... ... middle of paper ... ...merican History Online.
The Harlem Renaissance emerged during turbulent times for the world, the United States, and black Americans. World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 had left the world in disorder and stimulated anticolonial movements throughout the third world. In America, twenty years of progressive reform ended with the red scare, race riots, and isolationism throughout 1919 and led to conservative administrations through the twenties. While blacks were stunned by racial violence near the end of the decade and were frustrated by the lack of racial progress that progressivism had made, they were now armed with new civil rights organizations and confronted the approaching decade with new hope and determination. Education and employment opportunities had led to the development of a small black middle class.