In 1960s Spain under General Francisco Franco and in 1970s Chile under General Augusto Pinochet, exponential economic growth occurred. What is interesting to note, is that both these countries experienced economic glory under autocratic, totalitarian military regimes. This essay will discuss the role that Iberian Fascism had on the issue of the Economy in both Spain and Chile. This will be examined in three parts. Firstly, the problems the Dictator himself inherited. Secondly, the steps they took to solve the problem. Finally this essay will give a critical analysis of the consequences of their reforms.
In order to discuss this question, it must first be outlined what the Iberian form of Fascism is. It is one of conservatism, strong nationalism and strong social values that were derived from the Catholic Church. As Carr describes it, it was one of conservative and autocratic rule (265).
Both Franco and Pinochet came to power in Coup d’états, Franco however ended up having to fight a civil war from 1936-39 (of which he won). However, both had major issues to solve with the Economy – one inherited (Pinochet) and the other self-inflicted (Franco). Franco’s issue was with his original belief of autarky (a state or society that is economically independent). He wanted to rid Spain of the systems and ideologies that had ‘corrupted her true identity’, among these, at least in the early days of his rule, capitalism as a liberal market system (Carr 265). His original solution was to withdraw from the world market and have state intervention (266). Pinochet in contrast, inherited his major issues from the socialist government he had overthrown. The government of Salvador Allende implemented his Marxist reforms by socialising national...
Fortin, Carlos. “The Failure of Repressive Monetarism: Chile 1973-83”. Third World Quarterly, 6.2. (April 1984): 310-326. JSTOR, Electronic, Accessed May 27 2011.
Huneeus, Carlos. “Technocrats and Politicians in an Authoritarian Regime. The ‘ODEPLAN Boys’ and the ‘Gremialists’ in Pinochet’s Chile”. Journal of Latin American Studies, 32.2 (May 2000): 461-501. JSTOR. Electronic. Accessed May 27 2011.
Keen, Benjamin, and Keith Haynes. A History of Latin America. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. Print