Thousands of babies are born each year to couples who may have never been able to conceive on their own. Dr. Robert G. Edwards is given the credit for developing a procedure called in vitro fertilization, which continues to give hope to couples all over the world. The term “in vitro,” broken down, implies that a process occurs outside of a living organism, therefore “in vitro fertilization” simply means fertilization outside of an organism. This groundbreaking accomplishment is what lead Dr. Edwards to being awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. While previous studies had been done on the subject, he was the first to conduct the research necessary to make in vitro fertilization truly possible, and with help from Patrick Steptoe,
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) has been one of the most controversial medical topics of today. Also commonly known as test tube conception, IVF is a medical procedure of the joining of a woman’s egg and a male’s sperm in a laboratory dish or test tube. “In Vitro” comes from a Latin origin literally meaning “outside the body”, hence the technique. Normally, fertilization takes place inside a woman’s body. The fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the womb and continues to grow until the baby is born nine months later, this process being completely natural and known as an unassisted conception. On the other hand, IVF is a form of ART, assistive reproductive technology. Due to a woman’s infertility or a male’s low sperm count, different measures, like this technique, are taken in order for a couple to bear children.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)involves giving a woman drugs to induce ovulation and then harvesting (collecting) those mature eggs through a laparoscope. The man masturbates to collect the semen. Then, the semen and ova are mixed in a dish, where fertilization may occur. Then the tiny, new embryonic human(s) are put into the cavity of the woman's uterus with the hope that they will plant and grow. Other sophisticated techniques having the same purpose, employ a diversity of approaches to producing a pregnancy.
Jennifer Rosenberg on about.com (n.d.), had stated, “On July 254, 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first successful ‘test-tube’ baby was born in Great Britain.” This was advancement in the medical history for women everywhere who had difficulty getting pregnant; this medical breakthrough, known as In-vitro fertilization, or IVF, since Louise Joy Brown’s birth had only grown in ease and the amount of people that use this technology is at an all-time high. The CDC (2014) stated on their website that, “Number of women ages 15-44 who have ever used infertility services: 7.4 million.” This is a massive number of people that use this service. In-vitro fertilization’s advancement in medical technology allows people to have children despite any physical disability, relationship type, or even political controversy.
Woods, E.C. 1988. The future of in vitro fertilization. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 541: 715-721. World Medical Association. 1985. Interim Statement on Ethical Aspects of in vitro Fertilization. World Medical Association.
The addition of a child into a family’s home is a happy occasion. Unfortunately, some families are unable to have a child due to unforeseen problems, and they must pursue other means than natural pregnancy. Some couples adopt and other couples follow a different path; they utilize in vitro fertilization or surrogate motherhood. The process is complicated, unreliable, but ultimately can give the parents the gift of a child they otherwise could not have had. At the same time, as the process becomes more and more advanced and scientists are able to predict the outcome of the technique, the choice of what child is born is placed in the hands of the parents. Instead of waiting to see if the child had the mother’s eyes, the father’s hair or Grandma’s heart problem, the parents and doctors can select the best eggs and the best sperm to create the perfect child. Many see the rise of in vitro fertilization as the second coming of the Eugenics movement of the 19th and early 20th century. A process that is able to bring joy to so many parents is also seen as deciding who is able to reproduce and what child is worthy of birthing.
It is assumed by most that we will all be able to grow up, fall in love, get married, and then have children of our own. This is not the lifestyle that all people choose, but it is still the view accepted by the majority of society. What happens when the unthinkable occurs and a happily married couple is unable to get pregnant? This is a reality for 7.1%, or 2.8 million, of the married couples in the United States (Lenox, 1999). Today, there are many people all over the world that decide to use fertility treatments to help them conceive a child, and this often leads to the birth of twins, triplets, or even higher order multiples.
In the World, there are a lot of couples who are unfortunate and are unable to be able to give birth to children, making them infertile. There are a lot of different methods of contraceptives that infertile parents can use to have a baby, but the one I will be talking about today is IVF: In-vitro fertilization. There are hundreds of thousands of test tube babies living in the world right now, and is a very known method of having babies. According to the Centres for Disease Control (CDC), in the year 2002, about 2%, which is 1.2 million of the 62 million American Women, had a doctor’s appointment related to infertility, and most of those appointments were for IVF. (Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/babies-today/) The IVF treatment was invented in order to grant infertile couples the happiness of having a child, however, it is when fertilization occurs outside the body. On Average, 1 in 8 American couples experience infertility, and 1.1 million of these peo...
In addition to artificial insemination, the process of in-vitro fertilization has raised some major controversies that are centered on whether it is morally acceptable to meddle in the reproduction process. As part of the process of medically assisted procreation, in-vitro fertilization and its associated therapeutic approaches are used to enable infertile and untreatable couples to have children. The most common form of in-vitro fertilization is intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which enables clinicians to palliate most of masculine pathologies in order to deal with male infertility. While in-vitro fertilization has helped in dealing with male and female infertility, there are several potential risks associated with it including embryonic decrease, multiple pregnancies, cloning, risk of transmission of infectious disease, choice of donors, and donor motivation (Germond, n.d.). These issues emerge from the fact that the process involves the practice of surrogacy, a third party through genetic material donation, cryopreservation of and experiments on pre-embryos, and genetic manipulation.
The process of IVF begins with many tests to determine the quality of the reproductive organs of the woman (IVF - the risks). Next, the woman is given a prescription of four different type’s medicines to be administered via varying sizes of needles. This medic...