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INTEGRATED FRAMEWORKS OF TOURIST BEHAVIOR

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WHY PEOPLE TRAVEL: INTEGRATION OF THE FRAMEWORKS

Rational for the Integrated Frameworks

The theories presented in the literature section have been widely accepted in the tourism motivation and behavior studies. However, this paper will examine the tourist behavior based on the three theories/ frameworks, namely travel personality, travel career pattern, and strangeness and familiarity of tourist experiences. The selection of the integrated models are based on several reasons. Firstly, personality (Plog, 1974, 2001) is one of the main determinants of tourist behavior (Holden, 2005). Secondly, Cohen’s tourist typology are similar to those of Plog’s model in which organized and individual mass tourist (institutionalized tourists) can be attached to dependables, and explorers and drifters (non-institutionalized tourists) into venturers (Tofujay, 2013). Thirdly, Pearce’s (1988) five levels of needs can be applied to evaluate the changes of tourists’ needs by integrating the life-cycle stages, personality model and tourist experiences (Holden, 2005). Fourthly, tourists’ behavior studies generally only use a single theory and tested independently. Thus the integrated framework may enrich the study in understanding tourists’ behavior.

Choice of Destination

Understanding choice of destination is viewed as a critical factor for tourism researchers/ scholars, marketers, and destination planner (Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang, & O’Leary, 1996; Hsu, Tsai, & Wu, 2009). Those authors argued that a destination choice is influenced by the image of a destination perceived by travelers based on three concepts: the setting, the activities, and perceptions. The findings can be obtained through market segmentation and travel motivation researc...

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