Schmitz C, Rezaie P. The neuropathology of autism: where do we stand? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34(1):4–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2007.00872.x. PMID 17971078.
Am J Hum Genet 2002, 70:60-71. 4. Spence SJ, Cantor RM, Chung L, Kim S, Geschwind DH, AlarconM: Stratification based on language-related endophenotypes in autism: attempt to replicate reported linkage.AmJ Med GenetB Neuropsychiatr Genet 2006, 141:591-598. 5. American Psychiatric Association.
(2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 355-64 Bristol-Power, M. & Spinella,G (1999). Research on Screening and Diagnosis in Autism: A Work in Progress [Abstract]. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 29, 435 Glasson, E., Bower, C., Petterson, B., Klerk, N., Chaney, G., Hallmayer, F. (2004).
I. Introduction: Neurological disorders are complex in nature and often the least understood. Given the recent boom in imaging technology and other diagnostic methods, it is now possible to see more clearly into the scope of neurological development and accurately determine the etiology of these diseases. One of such disorders is Autism; a multifactorial condition impairing normal brain development. It affects many aspects of development, including social behavior, cognitive ability and communication skills1 and is commonly diagnosed in children before the age of three1.
Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1103-1132. doi: 10.1017/S0954579408000527 Rojas, D.C., Peterson, E., Winterrowd, E., Reite, M.L., Rogers, S.J., & Tregellas, J.R. (2006). Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry, 6 (56), PAGE N. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-6-56
Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 2008-2013. Rogers, K., Dziobek, I., Hassenstab, J., Wolf, O. T., & Convit, A. (2007). Who Cares? Revisiting Empathy in Asperger Syndrome.
It was not until 1994 that the American Psychiatric Association included AS as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; Myles, 2002). Although some debate exists among researchers, AS is considered part of the autism spectrum (Attwood, 1998). Autism is generally defined as having an impairment of both normal social interactions and communication (Out of the Deep Freeze, 2003). However, individuals with AS are often highly verbal (Gottlieb, 2003). Even though labeled high-functioning autism, AS may cause the greatest disability in adolescence and young adults when it comes to developing social relationships.
Behavior Review, 24, 434-438. Geschwind, D. H., & Levitt, P. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: developmental disconnection syndromes. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 103-111. Minshew, N.J., & Williams, D.L.
Autism is a behavioral syndrome usually presenting behavior abnormalities before the child is 30 months of age. These behavioral abnormalities include marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors (Piven, 1990). Although the exact etiology of autism is not known it is now believed that it is a dysfunction of one or more unidentified brain systems and not the result of parental and environmental influences. Variations in symptomology and in prognosis among autistic persons depend on both the severity and the extent of the underlying brain dysfunction (Repin, 1991). Several studies have been conducted including neuroanatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission tomography in order to locate this dysfunction.
Neuropsychology, 20(1), 21–29. doi: 10.1037/0894-4220.127.116.11 Wojcik, D. Z., Moulin, C. A., & Souchay, C. (2013). Metamemory in children with autism: Exploring “feeling-of-knowing” in episodic and semantic memory. Neuropsychology, 27(1), 19-27. doi:10.1037/a0030526