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ICT Systems and Business

explanatory Essay
1300 words
1300 words
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ICT Systems and Business

Use of computers has brought profound change to business. The

electronic office is an obvious example. In this, every desk in a

business is likely to have a computer. The computers will be networked

and have communications facilities.

The work done in offices is usually;

* receipt,

* processing,

* storage,

* despatch

Computers and ICT systems can do these things more efficiently and

faster than manual systems.

Businesses now advertise FAX numbers and email addresses prominently.

This affects the number of letters sent by post but FAX and email

cannot completely replace the postal service as original, hard-copy

letters are still needed for legal reasons.

Products can be ordered on-line via the internet and most businesses

now have their own website. Electronic Data Interchange is used to

send orders, pay invoices and transfer information generally.

Employees are paid using electronic funds transfer.

ICT AND MANUFACTURING

Many industries now use Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM), eg. cars are

manufactured by robot welders and paint sprayers, Benetton

manufactures clothes more quickly using CAD-CAM.

The quality of computer-manufactured articles is more consistent and

better, leading to greater productivity and reliability. Working

conditions are often cleaner and safer. There may be shorter working

hours but this could mean more reduncancies or redeployment. Skilled

workers have seen their skills made redundant by CAM.

Companies must modernise to remain competative and viable; if

non-viable then there may be even more job losses.

Use of computers has created a range of new jobs;

* hardware manufacture,

* sales,

* servicing,

* technical support (call centres)

* consultancy.

New products manufactured due to computers;

* mobile phones,

* CDs and DVDs

* videos

* satellite receivers,

* video cameras,

* digital cameras

ICT AND COMMERCE

The number of banking transactions is now so huge they could not be

carried out without computers:

* electronic transfer of funds,

* elctronic payroll

* ATM transactions,

* credit/debit card transactions

* home banking.

There is a movement towards the cashless society.

Our shopping habits have changed due to ICT;

* digital TV shopping channels,

* internet shopping.

Supermarkets offer loyalty cards to encourage customers to shop at

their stores. All records are stored on computer and the store can

gain useful demographic information. Computerised stock control using

barcodes is used by many shops. Supermarkets have grown bigger at the

expense of the corner shop.

The use of phone cards has resulted in less theft from call boxes.

Internet shopping is increasing and lead to the growth of internet

only companies, eg. ebay.com, and internet only banks, eg. cahoot.

Security is a problem for companies and the system is open to credit

card fraud especially for services, eg. payment for a

subscription-only service. Internet shopping has lead to companies

closing their retail outlets and consequent loss of jobs, eg.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that computers have brought profound change to business. the electronic office is an obvious example.
  • Explains that businesses now advertise fax numbers and email addresses prominently, which affects the number of letters sent by post. hard-copy letters are still needed for legal reasons.
  • Explains that many industries now use computer-aided manufacture (cam), eg. cars are manufactured by robot welders and paint sprayers, and benetton manufacture clothes using cad-cam.
  • Opines that companies must modernise to remain competative and viable. computers have created a range of new jobs.
  • Explains that the number of banking transactions is now so huge they could not becarried out without computers.
  • Explains that shopping habits have changed due to ict, digital tv shopping channels, and internet shopping. supermarkets offer loyalty cards to encourage customers to shop at their stores.
  • Explains that internet shopping has led to the growth of internetonly companies, eg. ebay.com, and internet only banks.
  • Explains that ict is used in medicine in the following areas: hospital and health centre administration, storing patient records, communicating between health centres and hospitals, monitoring patients in hospital, diagnosis of illnesses, helping the disabled, automated pathology, and automated operations.
  • Explains that hospitals use computers to control their appointments system and standard letters sent to patients. treatments received and illnesses diagnosed are stored in patientrecords in computers.
  • Explains that expert systems are used in medical diagnosis; they ask questions about symptoms and use the answers to make predictions as the likely cause. computer-controlled ultra-sound and cat scanners allow accuratescreening of patients.
  • Explains that computer-controlled robotic arms are used for operations, eg. prostate gland surgery. monitoring of patients' heart rates, respiration rates and blood pressure is routinely measured by computers.
  • Explains that artificial limbs are being developed that use computer control to makefor more natural movement.
  • Explains that the use of home computers and modems has made teleworking a viable proposition for many workers.
  • Explains that workers can work flexible hours in pleasant, familiar surroundings. their companies can have reduced office space and insurance, saving money.
  • Explains that videoconferencing is used between schools in remote areas, eg. finland and the highlands of scotland, and computer-based training (cbt) in areas such as pilot training.
  • Explains how the development of the computer has affected almost every part of industry and commerce and has led to the creation of a new industry initself.
  • Explains that typesetters used metal characters to make up a page of type for newspapers and books, and had to be able to read backwards. today, the same work is done using dtp software and electronically controlled.
  • Explains how printers and digital telephone exchanges have reduced the number of people needed to man switchboards. ocr and omr mean that people no longer check examinationanswers or football pool entries.
  • Explains that new industries have arisen due to the influence of computers, such as computer manufacturers, component makers,consultancies, service engineers, call centres, programmers.
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