Hysteria in The Crucible by Arthur Miller and in the Red Scare

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What is hysteria? By definition, hysteria is a state of intense agitation, anxiety, or excitement, especially as manifested by large groups or segments of society. In a broader sense however, hysteria is a killer, the delitescent devil. Hysteria was the main cause of nineteen deaths in the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. Years later, hysteria was responsible for countless ruined reputations and lives during the era of Senetor Joe McCarthy. Hysteria does not just appear out of nowhere though. There are driving forces such as revenge and abuse of power that bring about the irrational fear that can take over society. These are the issues expressed in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. The Crucible is paralleled directly to the Salem Witch Trials and indirectly to the McCarthy hearings of the 1950’s. The story of The Crucible takes place against the background of the Salem Witch, trials but the themes lie much deeper. The main themes expressed in The Crucible relate to the events that occurred at both the Salem Witch Trials and during the McCarthy era. At the Salem Witch Trials, one hundred fifty people were accused of practicing witchcraft and nineteen of those were convicted and executed. The evidence against these people was hardly substantial. At the McCarthy hearings, thousands of people were “blacklisted.” Anyone who tried to oppose the accusations was also viewed as a Communist. No one was convicted due to the more advanced legal system; still, that did not erase the fear that was instilled by the allegations. In 1692, the small town of Salem, Massachusetts was in a state of unrest. The farming families in the western part wanted to split from the town and form Salem Village. These separatists felt that Salem’s increasing economy was creating individualism and taking away from the communal nature of Puritanism. The family leading these separatists was the Putnam family. They started a congregation under Reverend Samuel Parris, which only increased division between the two blocs. The children of Salem did not have many forms of entertainment, especially during the winter. There were no movies or radios, and the adults were always busy with work. Many took to reading as a form of entertainment. The young people of the town became interested in books about fortune telling and prophecies. Some formed a circle led by Tituba, slave... ... middle of paper ... ...and his family and stand up for what he believed in. It ends up costing Proctor his life but he stopped the hysteria. By sitting on the sidelines, Proctor was indirectly contributing to the hysteria. Once he took responsibility, he was a proud man and the hysteria was put to an end. In the final scene of The Crucible, the minister pleads with Elizabeth Proctor to convince her husband to confess. She says “He has his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him.” (Arthur Miller, pg. 145). Hysteria can be started easily and spread like wildfire and can be ended just as effortlessly if one person takes a stand for what is right, no matter what the consequences. References Cited Miller, Arthur. The Crucible, New York: Penguin Books, 1976. Robinson, Enders A. The Devil Discovered: Salem Witchcraft 1692, New York: Hippocrene Books, 1991 Shrecker, Ellen. Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America, New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1998. Sutter, Tim. “Salem Witchcraft: the events and causes of the Salem witch trials.” 2000. Http://www.salemwitchtrials.com/salemwitchcraft.html. [available]. (20 January 2001).

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that hysteria is a state of intense agitation, anxiety, or excitement manifested by large groups or segments of society.
  • Analyzes how the crucible parallels the salem witch trials and the mccarthy hearings of the 1950's. the main themes expressed in the story relate to the events that occurred at both.
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