First, the term trophic cascade is defined in the context of the study. In this study, the authors focus on top-down processes and the ways in which related trophic interactions could have effects on ecosystems. They also discuss ways in which predators can influence the size of prey species populations in large and small scales. Additionally, the nonlethal effect of changes in prey behavior are discussed; this can include changes in herbivores’ use of spaces such as foraging patters within a habitat or even habitat preference. These changes are caused by fear of predation.
By overpopulation they have caused many problems from farmers to hunters, even some game. In some small way they may have helped with the illegal poaching of the wolves by making it legal to purchase tags and trapping permits. There are many ways in which the government and the people who care about the wolves and the people that are effected are working to fix this problem. Works cited (1) http://www.ask.com/question/how-do-wolves-hunt (2) Rob Pennell (3) http://www.fws.gov/wafwo/species/Fact%20sheets/gray%20wolf%20final.pdf (4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mackenzie_Valley_wolf (5) http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/public/wildlife/wolves/?getPage=260
. ., competition by the wolf for man’s livestock, and the possible competition by the wolf for wild animals that man regards as game” (289). Each concern needs to be addressed to move to move arguments beyond social threats to ecological issues. The first threat, the danger of wolves to humans, is rarely known outside of fairy-tales. The only existent evidence of wolf-induced danger remains in countries with less wild prey, more protection of domesticated animals, and less protection of young children than in the U.S. (Mech 291).
Accepting the doctrine of Animal Rights can result in the extinction of native animals, and also cause adverse effects on the environment. Another consequence of accepting the doctrine of Animal Rights is that humans will no longer be able to control foreign predators (pests) via traps, hunting, fishing and poisons. Many foreign animals have been introduced to different ecosystems over the course of history, and is very likely to have caused many extinctions of indigenous species. This occurs because they compete with native animals for habitat and food, and sometimes introduce new diseases. Maintaining the indigenous species and thus biodiversity is important because animals depend on each other in a food web, and an extinction in one can result in many more following.
Carnivores will usually eat herbivores, but they will and can eat omnivores. And occasionally other carnivores (NorthWestern n.d.). Animals that eat other animals, like carnivores and omnivores are important to an ecosystem. They keep other species from getting overpopulated and since carnivores have to hunt down and kill other animals they need to take in a large amount of calories to sustain their lives (NorthWestern
More than environmental problems and invasive species, human beings effect plants and animals very much. Humans being the dominant mammal on earth, build houses, take over land, and intrude in different species lands. Taking over land reduces resources for species which automatically effects the species way of gathering resources. Illegal hunting and poaching stays a massive problem throughout the world today. For example, poachers can endanger animals and often eliminate species with their illegal use of hunting (Bove, 2016).
Without hunters, animals could overpopulate, and cause great ecological damage. The role that hunting plays in sustaining animal populations is defiantly the difference between sustained populations, and mass starvations. Is hunting really necessary in the maintenance of a balanced ecosystem? That is one of the many questions asked by environmentalists and animal rights activists all over the world. In “The Deer” Marston discusses the decrease in hunters across the nation.
Thus giving each organism a normal amount of food to feed on. Like many other species in the wolf's external environment the Timber Wolf is a Consumer, this means that it can eat other species such as herbivores and even other carnivores (Nowicki 406). For example the Wolf consumes Elk. By eating the elk the wolf can prevent the animal from mating with another and as a result it decreases the elk population. To prevent having too much of a certain animal the Grey Wolf is needed or required to live in the environment to act like a limiter to certain types of species, this can help our lives as well.
Wolves, as with most wild animals, need to be hunted and regulated. For generations people have been hunting wolves for their pelts, and to keep families, pets and livestock safe. By hunting wolves we can also keep the wolf packs healthier while making sure they don’t get over run with disease. It also assures that hunters will have wild game for sport and food. Wolves cause a major threat to families, their livestock, wild game animals and to bear hunters’ dogs living in rural areas.
Recreational services are another economic source realized from the management of white-tailed deer. Much of the economics of white-tailed deer management can also be applied to other game species. Herd Health and Regulation White-tailed deer population size will affect the herd’s health. Disease in a herd spreads readily when the population size is large; this is known as density-dependent spread of infection (Habib, Merrill, Pybus, & Coltman, 2011). Frequency-dependency is the spread of infection controlled by the number of individuals infected.