Hyponatremia Essay

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Symptoms of hyponatremia differ in individuals depending on the severity. Most symptoms begin with lethargy even at mild levels. Individuals can often suffer from stomach aches, drowsiness, and vomiting. Admission to the hospital usually comes with severe symptoms such as lethargy, no orientation of time or place, and an altered state of conscious. After admittance to the hospital, routine bloodwork is completed in determining the initiating causes of these symptoms. If the results display sodium levels below the reference range of 135-145 mEq/L then patients are considered to be in a hyponatremic state (Pietrini 2010). These symptoms often worsen when treating with a hypertonic saline solution and in turn can initiate CPM development. Patients begin to improve and become more alert after treatment of hyponatremia has begun. Neurological conditions often gradually improve. However, with treatment sodium levels return to normal while the patient reaches normatremia. At this time, development of more severe symptoms cause for further exanimation and testing. Symptoms of CPM have been seen 3-10 days after treatment of hyponatremia when patients reach normatremia. Restlessness and confusion are key symptoms in individuals who have recently undergone rapid treatment of hyponatremia. Lesions associated with CPM are believed to start developing when normatremia is reached too quickly. Once patients reach normatremia, as discussed above, new symptoms develop and cause the need for a neurological examination to be performed. Upon completion of the examination, moderate quadriparesis, bilateral tremor, and limb dysmetria, which is the lack of coordination in muscle movement control, was seen. At the same time, an MRI may be performed and ... ... middle of paper ... ... the white matter of the brain. It is also important in determining pathological changes in early onset. CT scans and DWI are important testing techniques used in determining initiating causes of neurological changes in individuals. However, currently the best testing method available in identifying CPM is by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. With the use of strong magnetic fields and radiowaves in MRIs accurate body images are produced. MRI scans are highly sensitive and offer better visualizations of grey and white matter contrast in the brain. MRIs are the optimal choice for testing of diseases and/or disorders in the central nervous system. The most optimal time to perform an MRI is the most critical time to perform the scan as well, when patients develop neurological symptoms. Diagnosed is generally confirmed by autopsy results (Gheorghita et. al 2010).

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