Hypertension Essay

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Hypertension is a global problem. 30% subjects of primary hypertension have genetic predisposition If a first-degree relative, such as a parent or sibling, has high blood pressure, the chance to develop the high blood pressure is more.9 This association was studied and it was shown that offspring with parental history of hypertension are by some estimates four times more likely to develop the disease and the influence of positive family history becomes apparent in males by the age of 20 and in females by the age of 22. 1, 10

In previous studies it was observed that that young normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents showed elevated basal blood pressure and exhibit abnormal blood pressure response to exercise 3,9 and they may develop hypertension in future due to imbalance in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. 5
Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions may be of prognostic value in such individuals and a analysis of beat to beat variability of heart rate has been stated to represent one of the promising quantitative markers of autonomic activity. In fact, they provide a specific well defined indicator to study the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on cardiac functions.8
In our study the basal heart rate was significantly higher in normotensive obese with parental history of hypertension when compared to the other two groups with normal BMI. As the higher heart rate is an index of poor vagal tone and also a marker of relative sympathetic dominance, it is assumed that vagal withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity could be a causation factor for future hypertension in normotensive obese. 5
In our study we found that the systolic blood pressure was not significantly higher between...

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...ffspring without history of parental hypertension and diabetes with Body Mass Index (BMI) within normal limits with parental history of hypertension found that LF nu was increased, but HF nu, LF power (msec2), HF power (msec2), were decreased in the study group when compared to the controls. 13

In obese plasma levels of leptin are more in proportion to the body fat and that increases the sympathetic activity of the nervous system. Activation of the sympathetic nervous activity may plays a key role in increasing renal sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis leading to altered kidney function and hypertension in obesity. 16 Study showed that in men and women adiposity plays a key role and strong predictor of hypertension. It is worth to note that LF component of HRV to be a strong predictor of future hypertension though BMI, a measure of obesity. 17

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