This can weaken blood vessels and damage major organs, such as the brain. Left untreated, high blood pressure can lead to stroke. Blood pressure, like a person's heart rate, will vary occasionally with exercise or stress. For people over age 18, an optimal blood pressure reading is considered 120/80 or lower. A blood pressure reading consistently higher than 120/80 is considered "pre-hypertension."
The pulse quickens, the lungs take in more oxygen to fuel the muscles, blood sugar increases to supply added energy, digestion slows, and perspiration increases. This is just the beginning of what happens. In the second stage of stress... ... middle of paper ... ...n to other behavioral, dietary, and medical interventions for reducing the risks of heart disease. Stress has also been said to be related to blood pressure. You can have high blood pressure without feeling stressed or tense.
What is hypertension? Hypertension is a medical condition where the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. (Nordqvist 2013) Hypertension is commonly known as high blood pressure. If hypertension is left untreated, it can cause severe health problems such as stroke and heart failure. In order to treat hypertension, the drug Losartan is used.
They can also lead to hypertension. For those with normal blood pressure, this is not affecting, but those with previously increased blood pressure could be leading themselves at risk of cerebral vascular stroke and other problems related to high blood pressure, after consuming high amount of energy drinks. The American Heart Association (2017) showed that energy drinks causes a significant negative effect on blood pressure than drinks that contain caffeine alone as the active ingredient. In addition, niacin is placed in most energy
There are many risk factors that play key roles in the developing of coronary artery disease. Those include; low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol, and family history. High density lipoprotein (HDL), good cholesterol, helps remove excess cholesterol in the blood and can help to protect one from getting heart disease. If one has low HDL, the chances of developing coronary artery disease increases (Rimmerman, 2000). If someone smokes, the chances of developing coronary artery disease are greatly increased by one to three times.
The kidneys release an enzyme called renin which is stimulated by low blood pressure or certain nerve impulses. When the overall volume in the blood is increased, more blood is pumped through arteries which increases the pressure deployed on the artery walls. Studies also suggest that some people with hypertension may inherit abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system. There is also a cause like Secondary Hypertension which is caused by other factor such as medications that increases blood pressure. Conditions like Diabetes, Kidney disease, Endocrine disorders and more can also make high blood pressure more difficult to control.
Congestive heart failure is a chronic state, often referred to as heart failure. Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle does not pump blood as well as it should. There are various complications with congestive heart failure. For example, narrowing arteries in the heart, known as coronary artery disease or high blood pressure, repeatedly leave the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump successfully. Sadly, not all situations that lead to heart failure are reversible, but treatments are implemented to improve the symptoms of heart failure and provide a longer lifestyle.
Systolic pressure is the blood pressure in the arteries during the contracting phase of the heart. The diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart. Currently, the JNC 7 (2003) has classified blood pressure into categories based on systolic and diastolic blood pressures for diagnosis, based on evidence associated with cardiovascular disease. The JNC 7 (2003) blood systolic/diastolic pressure classifications are divided into the following diagnosis: • normal... ... middle of paper ... ... use, • stress, • sedentary lifestyle, and • obesity (Pedrosa, Krieger, Lorenzi-Filho, & Drager, 2011). The various categories’ of hypertension linked by OSA consist of the following: • nocturnal hypertension (abnormal 24-hour blood pressure that includes high blood pressure during sleep with non-dipping and/or reverse dipping), • resistant hypertension (hypertensive blood pressure that is uncontrolled despite the use of three antihypertensive medications including a diuretic), • masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in a clinic or physician’s office, and becomes hypertensive while ambulating, or in the home environment.
The degree of elevation in PAP itself is not the main cause of adverse effects of PH and lowering PAP is not the focus of therapy. This is in contrast to systemic arterial hypertension, where elevated pressure itself causes many subsequent events such as chronic kidney disease and cerebrovascular accident, with therapy being directly aimed at lowering systemic arterial pressure. PH is common among adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Almost 6% of adults with CHD carry a diagnosis of PH; this subset of patients has a higher risk of hospitalization and death.1 Over 1/3rd of complex ACHD hospitalizations in the United States involve a diagnosis of PH.2 The epidemiology of PH associated with congenital heart disease (PH-CHD), however, is poorly defined, with data based on widely disparate diagnostic techniques and definitions (detailed below). Most importantly, PH is often conflated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which refers to PH characterized by elevated PVR but normal pulmonary venous pressure (Table 1).
Plaque build-up in the arteries because of many factors such as nutrition, lack of physical activity, and or being overweight or obese. Other factors that are found to cause hypertension are stress, race/ ethnicity, age, alcohol, smoking and genetics (Understanding Yours Risks for High Blood Pressure, 2011). Topics such as race/ethnicity, age, and genetics cause high blood pressure and these are factors in your life that you cannot fully control because if you are grouped in a certain area you are automatically put at higher risks than others. Smoking, alcohol and stress on the other hand are factors that can be easily manipulated and if they are dealt with in the correct way ... ... middle of paper ... ...art Association. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/Understand-Your-Risk-for-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_002052_Article.jsp#.TsgtfLKgmuI Weder, A.