Hypercalcemia Essay

704 Words3 Pages
Keri Caylor Lecture case study #1 – Hypercalcemia 1. Hypercalcemia- having too much calcium in the blood. Symptoms include: constipation, nausea, pain, poor appetite, vomiting, depression and irritability (Cooper). Polyuria- urination more than normal with large amounts of urine each time, urinating more than 3 liters of urine a day (Polyuria - Frequent Urination) Nocturia- waking up in the middle of the night to urinate (Blake). Carcinoma- cancer that starts in the epithelial tissues that either says in one part of the body or spreads someone where. Some examples are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma (Types of Carcinoma: Basal Cell, Squamous Cell, and Adenocarcinoma). 2. Extracellular matrix of bone is made up of two parts, osteoid and hydroxyapatite. Osteoid is the organic component of bone matrix that is composed of collagen with some proteoglycans and glycoproteins. Hydroxyapatite is the inorganic component of bone matrix and is composed of salts of calcium phosphate and minerals (Repka, 2013, p. 92). 3. Blood plasma is the source of the minerals in the extracellular matrix of bone (Repka, 2013, p. 92). 4. The mineral component of bone gives the bone compressional strength (Repka, 2013, p. 92) 5. An osteoclast is a bone digesting cell, it breaks down and demineralizes the bone so that new bone can be formed (Repka, 2013, p. 92) 6. When serum calcium levels in the body get to low, parathyroid hormone, or PTH, is released and can do one of three things. It can increase the amount and activity of osteoclasts, which breaks down the inorganic matrix, increasing serum calcium. It can also increase the production of vitamin D, which is necessary for absorption of calcium from the intestines. Fin... ... middle of paper ... ...al Library of Medicine. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000365.htm 17. Freitas, B. (n.d.). Imaging in Primary Hyperparathyroidism . Imaging in Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/390728-overview 18. Kenny, T. (n.d.). Patient.co.uk - Trusted medical information and support. Patient.co.uk. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/bisphosphonates 19. Polyuria - Frequent Urination. (n.d.). Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/symptoms/polyuria.html 20. Repka, A. (2013). Human Anatomy and Physiology Class Materials. Howard County: Howard CC. 21. Types of Carcinoma: Basal Cell, Squamous Cell, and Adenocarcinoma. (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/cancer/what-is-carcinoma

More about Hypercalcemia Essay

Open Document