Even though the Green Revolution allows tremendous amount of production through technological and scientific innovation; it increases the inequality problem in rural area as a result of labor migration. In addition, it leads a higher debt rate for small farmers because of imbalance of earning and spending. Furthermore, it causes land degradation and soil nutrients depletion, so does not allow bio diversity. In short, the Modernization theory underestimates that the issue of inequality instead it heavily only focuses on economic growth through the adaptation of technology. Scientific farming method allows high yield production of agriculture goods.
Lastly, this revolution it made the production of agriculture boost, and fewer workers were needed in farm work. The Great Britain Industrial Revolution assisted the growth of agriculture, communication, transportation and socioeconomic. At first, the economic changes were made by new machines and new methods introduced and invented. Machines replaced human in method of production, and people relocated their working place from home to factory (Changes…). Because of the working place was stable, the production in textile increased and made in better qualities, so those could be sold for higher prices.
In Carol Off’s book, she states, “Green & Black’s played the ethical card to the hilt, putting the message that it was paying a premium price for the cocoa beans while allowing African farmers a chemical-free environment” (281). Though their chocolate cost more than others’ did, they were able to pay farmers well, and stipulate a healthier approach- organic. Such can be done on a larger scale, but is being avoided by big companies, whose best interest lies in profit. Seeing how slavery can be greatly reduced, which has been successfully demonstrated, begs the question: what than will it take for big business to implement these changes? Works Cited Off, Carol.
Although West African cotton farmers are more efficient, low-cost producers they cannot compete with the US producers' access to huge subsidies. Consequently, the cotton price crisis is contributing to the poverty for millions of African farmers. Unfortunately, farm and trade policies do not help most small farmers in the United States either. Low world prices are quickly forcing US family farmers out of business, while large-scale, corporate agriculture benefits from government payments. The global coffee crisis is also creating hardships for families around the world.
And the big manufacturers of chocolate have to face the problem, as the beans become short it will be difficult for them to provide quality products at cheaper rates. But it beneficial for the supplier of the cocoa beans manufacturers that they can charge prices according to their own rules. As in supply, when price increase the supply of the product will increases. Labor shortage is another problem in areas where cocoa is growing. In the growing areas people prefer to work in cities rather than rural to earn better income.
The agricultural productivity gains in third world countries have significant impacts on the final poverty levels as there is universal increase in agricultural activities. The importance of increasing agricultural production in developing countries highlights issues increased living standards, increase in both social and technological facilities (Grushkin, 2012, p.15). In the long run genetically modified foods reduce global poverty by increasing income, low costs of production and consumption benefiting the poor people. In a nutshell the overall impacts of increased agricultural productivity are without a doubt positive, through reducing poverty level rates (Magdoff & Tokar, 2009 p.12).
According to cumulative causation, when TNCs outsource to a third party firm, there will be more jobs generated. Higher employment rate increases personal income of locals, thus generates more purchasing power for consumer goods, leading to growth and development of service industries, boosting the local economy. TNCs offer financial support to their host economies since they have to pay taxes to the local government and authorities. With this increased revenue, the government is able to invest in the development of better physical infrastructure, such as roads and electricity, and social services, such as health care and services. This in turn attracts more foreign direct investment (FDI) boosting overall economic growth.
Since a well-organized system of providing social security does not exist in Kenya, the best assurance of economic security comes through the ownership of land. In addition to the land security, commercial agriculture provides an inlet for added security through market extensions. Market extensions aid farmers and their families by providing loan and investment services. Unfortunately, the population boom in Kenya, as everywhere in Africa, means less land and agricultural opportunities; consequently, the increased rural density has forced people to seek work in the cities. Although the city dwellers have more control over their work conditions, they are by no means financially stable since the work will inevitably be in the informal sector.
GM crops allow farmers to grow more without using additional land, where they can produce high yields without spending money on more land. Additionally, the total farm income of $116.6 billion was divided equally between farmers in developing and developed countries, providing them with a steady, reasonable income (“Biotechnology: Regulatory Issues”). Globally, farmers received an average of $3.33 for each dollar invested in GM crop seeds (“Biotechnology: Regulatory Issues”). These crops present a cheaper way to buy and grow, and help earn more money for the farmers. Due to the increase in yields that GM crops produce, farmers gain more money.
Because of the immense decrease in farmer’s income due to the low cocoa prices at the time, many adult laborers left the industry to seek better payment (International Labor Rights Forum, 2014). Pressure to boost “productivity resulted in pressure to recruit more workers including children who may or may not be paid fairly” (Dunn, 2014). It its vital to increase farmers income by educating them to reach a higher productivity, which will result in a better quality in cocoa production. Cocoa producers have little to no bargaining power against the large multinational companies such as Nestle, Cargill and ADM, who control the supply chain and eventually conclude the livelihood of the farmers and their families. International Labor Rights Forum is committed to fighting “forced child labor in the cocoa industry through public education, corporate campaigns and engagement with partners in West Africa to uncover issues and find solutions” (International Labor Rights Forum, 2014).