However, with the second choice, the commands of God are actually worthless. In response, the only conclusions are that the commands of God are actually meaningless or there is a standard of morality that exists separately from God. This would offend many religions and the religious perspectives of the people in them. However, in this case, they would have to accept a standard of morality that was separate from God’s will. We have examined the arguments for and against the Divine Command Theory.
This is not because Meynell takes that assumption to be indefensible or incapable of demonstration; it is rather that the existence of God is not his topic in this book. Meynell's strategy in his chapter on the relevance of theism, he begins by arguing that belief in God does have specifically moral effects upon those who have. It enables us to act upon our beliefs about what it is right for us to do, and enables us to correct our pressing and depressing tendencies toward self-deception and self-interest. And he then argues that philosophical challenges to this view of the relations between theism and right action fail. The principal challenge he has in mind is the claim that Socrates' question in the Euthyphro-whether the gods love what is good because it is good, or whether what they love is good merely because they love it- cannot be answered.
Tübingen theology was extremely skeptical about Christianity, yet also promoted mysticism. Further, the school disregarded church history.1 Thus Ritschl’s theology would take a less extreme approach. He would reject mysticism on the grounds that theology must be firmly rooted in reality, particularly moral and ethical realities. On this basis he also rejected natural theology.2 Ritschl’s theology agreed with Kant’s philosophy to some extent. He agreed that the mind was limited to its experiences, but believed it could understand moral issues as they affected the individual.3 Thus everything was reduced to judgements of fact or value.
Usually God is explained using rational arguments and logic, which often fail. This happens because it is not possible to explain God using logic, which Kupfer clearly explains in his essay. Looking at Kupfer’s essay, and his reasoning for God’s existence was a refreshing movement away from the ideas of most philosophers. Works Cited Kupfer, Joseph. "The Art of Religious Communication."
The Word of God Does Not to Turn Evil into Good Conscience is sometimes spoken of as the voice of God within. To many this seems a rather unsophisticated thing to say. It may seem the sort of thing a non-intellectual theist might casually affirm, perhaps in a well-intentioned effort to encourage conscientiousness in himself and others. But the idea that men have a sort of inner guiding light which is a reflection of the mind of God is far from being simple-minded. True or false, it is a basic concept with wide ramifications.
Is there any satisfactory way of reconciling the existence of an omnipotent and all-loving God with the existence of natural evil (i.e. evil not due to the misuse of human free will)? One of the central claims of the Judaeo-Christian tradition is the existence of an omnipotent and all-loving God. Against this is the observation that people and animals suffer evil. By common sense, we would infer from this observation that God, as conceived in this tradition, does not exist - for, if He did, He would prevent the evil.
Moral realists believe that God has created a set of moral rules for us to follow. The approaches to the moral realism theory include the Devine Command Theory, Natural Law Theory, and Consequentialism. One of the approaches to Moral Realism, Devine Command Theory is the idea that “an act is morally required just because it is commanded by God, and immoral just because God forbids it.” The second moral theory is Moral Nonrealism, which yes, sounds like the first one, but it is the opposite. Moral nonrealism is the theory that there is not any real determination between what is right and what is wrong, and humans aren’t able to obtain the knowledge of determining what is right and wrong. Some approaches to moral nonrealism are; Moral Skepticism, and Moral Nihilism.
The material was well written but was kind of depressing to read because of how melancholy he acted. It was presented in a scholarly manner. It has given me a greater understanding of how they were so afraid of whether they “felt” that they were a Christian. I would not really recommend it to another person because it was hard to read without feeling depressed and melancholy. The book was good in some places, but in others it was hard to read and in general it is not something I would pick up to read again.
Deontology can be looked at as a generally flexible moral theory that allows for self-interpretation but like all others theories studied thus far, there are arguments one can make against its reasoning. One objection to deontological moral theory is that the theory yields only absolutes and cannot always justify its standpoints. Actions are either classified as right or wrong with no allowance for a gray area. Furthermore, the strict guidelines tend to conflict with commonly accepted actions. For example, lying is always considered morally wrong--even a “white lie.” Therefore, one must not lie even if it does more good.
In spite of Maher defending his position, there was a particular argument that I did not agree upon. For instance, Maher quotes in the end of the film “Religion is dangerous because it allows human beings who don’t have all the answers to think that they do”. He was oblivious to the fact that god could or could not exist. Aside from his overall judgment on Christianity, Juda... ... middle of paper ... ...sis look like he was in it for the win and not to prove a point. Although, I did agree on some of his words, I was not satisfied of the structure of his argument.