In it, Freud claimed that civilizations are developed through the channeling of anti-social erotic and aggressive urges into constructive outlets. He went further and explained that social ills are caused by those members of society who are not satisfied with the substitutes supplied by the channelling of anti- social instincts into social creative energies. Such repression causes a certain tension which after awhile cannot be repressed and is released in socially
Civilization tries to categorize and combine individuals by families, peoples, nations, etc, “but man’s natural aggressive instinct, the hostility of each against all and of all against each, opposes this program of civilization” (81). Nietzsche would critique Freud’s idea of man’s aggressive nature by stating that it is man’s irrational behavior that is manifested in this aggression. Nietzsche would say this is man expressing himself and finding his happy niche.
Freud recognized the irrational as a potential danger. He believed irrationality was a "comprehensible object of science." Man was said not to be a rational being, guided by inner forces. Sigmund Freud's philosophy was that a man's actions are not always rational. And such an idea flew in the face of the ideals of the Enlightenment in no less a way than had Nietzsche's notion that "God is dead."
Voltaire includes Pangloss, Candid... ... middle of paper ... ... get sick in modern society is because of their lavish and greedy lifestyles. Ultimately, Voltaire’s explanation for the existence of human misery proves to be more valid because it is based on instances that he observed in his own life. It is his belief that through reason and education, man can separate himself from the savage whereas Rousseau argues that man is naturally good and becomes corrupted by the institutions that he himself created. Rousseau’s fault lies in the fact that he bases his entire argument off of a theoretical state of nature that he tailors to suit his argument throughout his discourse. Rousseau’s argument is also invalid because what he is proposing is impossible.
D. Ed. Leffelholz, Mary. New York: Norton & Company, 2007. 1403. Print.
Industrialization and lack of true feelings lead not only to destructive relationships but also to destructive, as opposed to natural, violence, for example in the mechanized warfare of the First World War. This unnatural violence is related to that of the super-ego, which, according to Freud, tries to impose the rules of society upon the ego through the natural violence of conscience, thus stifling Eros and the death drive. While the plot of Lady Chatterley’s Lover criticizes this civilized and mechanized violence of the super-ego, it also uses it in the form of satire to formulate this very critique, which contributes to the ambivalence in the novel’s relationship with society. Likewise, because the novel uses words to try to describe experience,
In Sigmund Freud’s Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud juggles between the civilized and savage human lives in order to show his assessment on civilization, the source of discontent. Civilization is a paradox. According to Freud, civilization, although its purpose would seem to assist the advancement of human misery and suffering, is actually somewhat the cause for that suffering. This explains human’s subliminal hostility toward civilization. His assessment on civilization has relation to his theory of instincts and the individual psyche because that is where the civilization emerges from.
Humans have an intrinsic fascination with contravening the innate tenets of existence, as the proclivity of the human condition to surpass our natural world leads to destruction. This inherent desire of man to augment our knowledge through conquering science and the secrets of life has transcended time, denoting literature premising the corruption of humanity. These pieces are reflected in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Ridley Scott’s film Blade runner, perpetuating this assertion that man’s unnatural desires of deducing reality are precarious. Thus both composers postulate a grim future arising from man’s predilection of aberrant behaviour, as commonalities reinforce this desires opportunity to cause destruction. Paranormal creation and humanities emotive detachment are explored in both pieces, as their respective context has shaped conceptualisations of man’s desires which lead to destruction.