Humanistic psychology surfaced in middle of the 20th century in response to the predominant views about human behavior at the time. Humanistic psychology argued against the notion that the subconscious drives human behavior and therefore rejected theories of psychoanalysis and behaviorism, both deterministic in nature. Humanistic psychologists regarded both these theories as pessimistic because they highlighted only on painful emotions and that personal choice was not taken into consideration. Humanistic psychology has holistic view of the individual and emphasizes basic humans needs of fulfillment and happiness. Positive psychology is a more recent area of psychology that studies how to encourage individuals and communities to succeed. The …show more content…
Theoretically, humanistic psychology is more inclined to qualitative research while positive psychology is more inclined to quantitative research (Waterman 2013). However, humanistic and positive psychology can be seen as parallel in their content because they both aim to understand and develop human growth (Waterman 2013). One of the premises of humanistic psychology is a total view of a person in regard for their value and dignity. The goal of a humanistic psychologist is to establish the fundamental potential for growth in every individual. This relates to positive psychology because it also has a concern with personal growth of character strength and virtues. In A Therapist’s Response to Alan Waterman, Serlin (2014) reflects on the application of humanistic psychology in therapy. Serlin (2014) says that in practice, she combined qualitative and quantitative methods of research in order for the individual to generate awareness of the self and others. Serlin also emphasizes how humanistic psychology examines both the client’s experiences of joy and existential dilemmas (2014). Positive psychology and humanistic psychology relate to each other in their existential roots and their roles against pessimism. Both are concerned with human welfare and the main expected outcomes of positive psychology are …show more content…
These latter tend to focus on human being' relationship with their psychology, behavior and cognition but rarely on their fuller experience of living" (Schneider 2014). Schneider encompasses here how humanistic psychology challenges the assumption that the scientific method is not the only way to gain data or insight into the human psyche. In its study of man, humanistic psychology focuses on one person and what the person is experiencing in the moment. Waterman (2013) argues a difference between humanistic and positive psychology because of the incorporation of mindfulness in the latter. Serlin (2014), a humanistic psychologist, said that she incorporated mindfulness and imagery in therapy. Mindfulness is the capacity to consciously think about what you are experiencing. Carl Rodgers incorporated this in his client-centered therapy because it deals with clients observing themselves willfully instead of the therapists analyzing their unconscious thoughts. Friedman (2014) argues that mindfulness techniques in positive psychology are roughly the same as the focus on the experiencing person in humanistic psychology. It studies and understands the whole person throughout the course of life.
Additionally, Humanistic Psychology studies how people value themselves. Today’s Psychologists are often faced with problems when diagnosing patients, and utilizing a Humanistic approach to their prognosis facilitates a more broad study of what may be occurring. Taking a step back, Jake is having a tough time with his classes; his classes are now more difficult than before, and they might be affecting how Jake perceives his own values. I.e. because Jake feels more nervous, he could be losing his sense of control, which goes against his personal growth and affects his values and image of himself. Applying the humanistic approach to Jake, his fulfillment as a student is his personal growth. However as the difficulty of his classes increase, so does his own personal perception on how much he is growing. For Jake, realizing that he’s not suited for a particular difficult class is upsetting and induces anxiety. Modern day Psychologists would concur because Jake is feeling less valued and lacking a proper humanistic view of himself, he is feeling uncomfortable, and thus more
Humanistic psychology relies on client centred therapy and the idea that each individual has the potential to achieve a position in their psyche named self actualisation. Humanistic psychology differs from psychodynamic theory in that it is optimistic about the human psyche and does not view conflict as inevitable. Humanistic psychology assumes people attach meaning to their unique perspectives on the world and that behaviour is strongly influenced by this. Carl Rogers defined the healthy personality as being one that had congruence between the perceived self and the experienced self and that the individual in question experienced unconditional positive regard from their parent or guardian. He defined an unhealthy personality as being one which lacked these components. Abraham Maslow alternatively suggested a hierarchy for which a person’s healthy personality could be measured by stages of psychological and physical needs (see diagram 2). He suggested that, for a person to achieve self actualisation and become a fully functioning person, they must first satisfy all the needs of each level in the pyramid before moving onto the next
For example, for me or my family to reach the top of the pyramid we must first have our physiological needs met, then our safety, love, and self-esteem. But, if one of my family members is missing self-esteem, they cannot reach the top. With the humanistic perspective, this means my family member will not ever feel fully satisfied. This perspective, however, also provides a positive and encouraging type of therapy, meaning if my family members or me is missing something, therapy will take a positive and supporting role and will be able to overcome said challenge. In the end, the humanistic approach can applied to help me or my family members reach
Existential-Humanistic paradigm influenced the intellectual history of western psychology in an essential way through exposure of attention to many important issues ignored by psychology during the first half of the last century. Existential-Humanistic paradigm has two components, first, the need to define and redefine the underlying paradigm that combines the field. Second, the need to choose and refine the appropriate research methodologies. Existential-Humanistic paradigm centralised around a paradigm claiming being concerned with openness to human experience (Hiles, 2000). Theorists representing the Existential-Humanistic paradigm is George Kelly, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2003, p. 14).
Counseling and therapy The main focus of humanistic therapy is to assist the patient in development of a stronger and healthier sense of self or in other words help him in achieving highest level of self-actualization. EarlierApproaches Abraham Maslow’s Developmental Theory : highlights the importance of hierarchy of needs and motivations in development
Humanistic psychology would encourage the depressed person to seek out interesting and fun things to do that will make them feel happy and fulfilled. This could involve some form of therapy and focusing on the positive things in life. Another could be an individual who is bored with his job. The humanistic perspective would encourage such an individual to be creative and focus on the positive aspect of the type of employment and the resulting accomplishment. Rather than wait for others to effect a change, each individual is responsible for his or her personal happiness in life.
Psychologist has made an attempt on better serving individuals in the community. However, positive psychologist believes their area of expertise will be an helpful addition to the field that would assisting clients in the community. Even though, they are many individuals who are critical of positive psychology it has become part of the new movement of psychology. The field of psychology has been evolving and has given others various ways to look at psychology.
Unique perspective on psychopathology Humanist therapies posit that clients are resilient beings that possess natural inclinations to survive and grow, even in the face of adverse circumstances (Cain, 2002). Although humanistic therapies, do not deny that psychopathology exists, they tend to look beyond the medical model of psychology when working with clients (Cain, 2002). They take a non-pathologizing view. Clients have complex life stories, emotions, and behaviors (Angus et al., 2015). While these patterns of living may be representative of a clinical diagnostic category, clients are never reduced to one.
Features of the Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Perspectives Outline the key features of the psychoanalytic and humanistic perspectives, and briefly compare and contrast their views on conscious experience, a person as an integrated whole, and the role of therapists in arriving at changes. Answer In explaining and predicting animal behaviour, different schools of psychology are of different perspectives; e.g. cognitive approach focuses on the mental processes, behaviourism is based on external stimuli and reinforcement, biological approach is concerned with the relationship between the mind and body and the influence of heredity. However, they are only cope with a specific part of people, but neglect human as a whole.
Humanistic and Existential Psychology are influential on each other, both including the “meaning of our existence, the role of free will, and the uniqueness of each human” (Burger, 2015). This paper reviews three articles written by influential psychologists of their time, Maslow, Rogers, and Frankl. The review of each will include a summary, how well the contents connect to the humanistic or existential psychology, and if their ideas still have a relevant application in today’s environment. The first article for review by Viktor Frankl, an existential psychologist, Logotherapy and Existentialism, was written in 1967.
The psychoanalytic approach, proposed by Sigmund Freud, is based on the idea that childhood experiences significantly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems. In addition, psychoanalysis emphasizes the influence of unconscious fears, desires and motivations on thoughts and behaviors. The humanistic approach, presented by Abraham Maslow, emphasizes self actualization and free-will. It is based on the belief that each person has freedom in directing his or her future.
Humanistic psychology emphasizes the study of the whole person. It is a philosophy that views human behavior through the eyes of the observer as well as the person doing the behavior. This philosophy came to prominence in the 1950’s. Carl Rogers is given the majority of credit for this line of thought.
Humanistic psychology acknowledges that the mind is strongly influenced by external forces and the unconscious of the client. The human being and their difficulties are viewed as positive traits and behaviors. “Humanistic psychologist believe that people are inherently motivated to fulfill their internal needs and their individual potential to become self-actualized” (Hardy 2016 p. 248). Human beings and their difficulties are viewed as a whole and every aspect of the person’s life is taken into