Humanism As A Latin Term Coined By Hans Baron

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According to Nicholas Mann, "Humanism is that concern with the legacy of antiquity, and in particular but not exclusively with its literary legacy... it involves above all the rediscovery and study of Greek and Roman texts, the restoration and interpretation of them, and the assimilation of the ideas and values they contain." The Studia Humanitatis (Studies of Humanity) is a Latin term used by Roman writers describing a cycle of studies in the humanities including, grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy. Francesco Petrarch, an Italian scholar and poet of the fifteenth century, is considered by many to be the father of humanism. Petrarch 's influential texts had circulated widely throughout Florence and made their way into the government. Thus, humanist learning began to shape political ideologies in Florence. By inspiring humanist philosophy, Petrarch helped pave the way for the start of the Renaissance. Civic humanism is a term coined by Hans Baron. He was a German scholar who made civic humanism the main focus of his career. According to Baron, civic humanism was the outcome of a long-term military conflict between elite ruled Florence and monarchical Milan. Florence was convinced that their form of government rule was the superior to any form of tyranny. This expanded into the popular ideology of civic humanism which was strongly republican, deeply anti-monarchical, and more specifically viewed monarchy as servitude. The virtues of civic humanism consist of Liberty and Albert Rabil Jr, author of 'The Significance of "civic Humanism" in the interpretation of the Italian Renaissance ', stated that although the most powerful representatives of civic humanism originated in Florence, beginning with Petrarch, an... ... middle of paper ... ...isconti. “The ideas of the civic humanists followed and reinforced an economic reality.” A final critic that has also critiqued the innacuracies of Barons thesis is Lauro Martines. Martines studied the backgrounds of eleven Florentine humanists and concluded that all of them were either born into wealthy families or obtained it and were a part of the ruling class. He agreed with Baron’s view that humanists lacked a relation with the public, but also believed that “the social and political environment had already formed them to some extent.” “As in the case of most other historical paradigms of equal power, this one is not likely to lead to a unanimous conclusion. But it has profoundly altered and enriched the study of humanism, and whatever the outcomes of continuing study prove to be, the terrain will forever look quite different as a result of civic humanism.”

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