(2011). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/prevention/HPV-vaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine the Basics. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine-the-basics?source=see_link Sirovich, B. E., MD, MS. (2013). Cervical Cancer Screening.
These tumours that develop can multiply and affect tissue surrounding it as well as spread throughout the body, affecting other organs and tissues (Craft, Gordon & Tiziani, 2011). Breast cancer is common in females between the ages of 35 and 55 (Cross and Underwood, 2013). In 2007, breast cancer was the most commonly diagnosed cancer in females (AIHW, 2012a). Between the years 1995 and 2002, the age-standardised incidence rates increased to ‘0.6 cases per 1000,000 women per year’ (AIHW, 2012a). Although, the most recent studies show that there has been an decrease in rates of about 1.3 cases per 100,00 women between the years 2002 and 2007 (A... ... middle of paper ... ...ies, 74.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(7), 452–8. doi:10.1093/jnci/djt007 6.Domcke, S., Sinha, R., Levine, D. a, Sander, C., & Schultz, N. (2013). Evaluating cell lines as tumour models by comparison of genomic profiles. Nature communications, 4, 2126. doi:10.1038/ncomms3126 7.Eva Kiesler, (http://www.mskcc.org, 2013) Do Cancer Cell Lines Really Resemble Tumors? Now Researchers Can Tell.
Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HPV National University Hospital (2003, November). Genetic Testing- Why When and Whom. Retrieved from http://www.nuh.com.sg/wbn/slot/u3609/Education/Healthcare%20Professionals/Education%20&%20Training%20Opportunities/Bulletin/bulletin_33.pdf World Health Organization (2013, September). WHO | Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs380/en/
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Ovarian cancer happens in about 22, 240 women each year, and about 14,230 will die of this cancer (American Cancer Society, 2013). It is considered the ninth most common cancer that women can have. There is a higher chance of getting ovarian cancer if you are middle-aged or older. If you have a close family member, who have ovarian cancer then you have a higher chance of getting this cancer. Most cases of ovarian cancer are when the mutation gene is inherited by a close family member.
(2013). Retrieved from Pancreatic Cancer Action Network: https://www.pancan.org/section_facing_pancreatic_cancer/learn_about_pan_cancer/risk_factors/index.php Sherwood, L. (2013). Pancreatic and Biliary Secretions. In L. Sherwood, Human Physiology From Cells to Systems (pp. 607-609).
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