Human Brain Case Study

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The human brain has three major components, which are the brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. The brain stem is responsible for connecting the brain to the spinal cord. The brain stem controls breathing, digestion, heart rate and other involuntary processes. The cerebellum is involved in some cognitive functions such as language, attention and emotional functions such as fear or pleasure, but the cerebellum mainly controls balance and motor controls. The cerebrum is split into two different hemispheres – left and right. The cerebrum is protected by the cerebral cortex, which is a protective sheet of neural tissue. The cerebral cortex also protects the thalamus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The thalamus receives information
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A neuron is a cell that transmits information throughout the human brain and nervous system. The average human has approximately 100 billion neurons and about 90% of the neurons are located in the cerebral cortex. For as many neurons there are in the human brain, there are as many neuroglia which serve to protect and support the neurons. Neurons are unlike any other brain cell because at birth the neurons are able to divide and make new cells. The cells divide and increase in size until about the age of eighteen but they last a lifetime. The most interesting part of neurons dividing occurs in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an area in the human brain essential to memory and is the only area in the brain where neurons continue to divide and increase in size throughout life. (Mastin,…show more content…
Humans spend approximately eight hours asleep per day. Essentially, humans spend one-third of their lives asleep. Sleep is a required process of life and it is an essential activity. Sleep is not time for the body and brain to shut down and rest. Sleep is an active process. During sleep, the brain is active. Specifically, the subconscious part of the brain is active while the conscious part of the brain is at rest. Sleep is a dynamic process and it is not an inactive event. Sleep is essential for survival. A study was done on rats and the rats that slept regularly lived a full life which lasted about two to three years. The rats that were sleep deprived lived about five months. Sleeping reinforces learning and memory. While the brain is sleeping, unneeded and unwanted memory is forgotten. Sleep is important in human learning. A study has shown that a when a human gets plenty of deep NREM sleep in the first half of the night along with a solid amount of REM sleep in the second half of the night improves human ability to perform spatial task. A full night sleep is essential for learning. Without a full night sleep, learning may or may not occur. NREM sleep is when the brain is about to rest, not all of the brain but most of the brain rest. REM sleep is when the brain is in a deep sleep. (Sceid,

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