In their 1998(a) paper, Black and Wiliam refer to assessment as any activity undertaken by teachers or students to provide evidence of the progress in learning. There are two types of assessment, summative and formative. Summative assessment is a clear method in which to record a pupil’s progress. This form of assessment is usually carried out after a certain period of time, usually in the form of an exam, to determine how well a pupil has understood the required information and they are then assigned a grade. Formative assessment, on the other hand, focuses on assessing pupils throughout the learning process so that teachers can make any possible changes to the teaching methods being used and can provide pupils with the necessary feedback
A good assessment practice is a key feature in order to achieve an effective teaching and learning practice. This section will consider the assessment issue from a theoretical and empirical perspective, having as the main objective to improve my future teaching. Traditionally, assessment has been thought to be something that happens after the learning process, something separate of the teaching process in time and purpose. (Graue, 1993). However, currently, approaches about assessment make the difference between Summative assessment or assessment of learning (AoL) and Formative assessment or assessment for learning (AfL), but this is not actually a new approach, as Ryle (1949) already talked about Knowing
The human brain is the most complex organ in the known universe. It controls everything in the human body and has produced marvelous ingenuity. The basic size, shape, and location of the human brain does not vary much from person to person. But the way in which humans use their brain varies greatly. Learning is defined as “the act or process of acquiring knowledge or skill” or “the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience” (Dictionary.com, Year?). The different sections of the brain can impact how and individual will learn and in what manner they will be most comfortable learning.
Classroom assessments can do more than measure learning. How educators access and communicate the results send a clear message to students about what is worth learning, how we expect them to perform as well as how it should be learned. Linking instruction and assessment is critical to effective learning. Educators should provide students with various options for learning that include: different ways to learning (style and time), di...
Formative assessment is a collection of practices that lead to some action that improves learning. It is the use of the information gathered, and how it is used to adjust teaching and learning that makes it formative. A study by Black and William (1998a, 1998b) revealed that the largest achievement gains used classroom discussions, classroom tasks, and homework to determine student learning and the action that would be taken to improve learning and/or correct misunderstandings, descriptive feedback with guidance, and students developing self- and peer-assessment skills. Formative assessments are a powerful tool for teachers and students alike. Some examples of formative assessment include summarizing activities, questioning, conferences, and response journals (Chappuis, 2009). Another type of assessment is summative assessment. Summative assessment provides evidence of student achievement for the purpose of making a judgment about student competence or program effectiveness. It is also used to determine how much students have learned at a particular time such as at the end of a nine
Assessment is “the process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information to aid in decision making” (Airasian, 2000, p. 10). Similarly, Payne (2003) defines assessment as “the interpretive integration of application tasks (procedures) to collect objectives-relevant information for educational decision making and communication about the impact of the teaching-learning process” (p.9). This means that assessment is a form of collecting data which has meaning when making judgments on students’ learning. It is an effective way to assist students’ learning, identify their weaknesses and strengths and also to recover the effectiveness of curriculum programs. On the other hand, Moon (2000) suggests that assessment is “a way of providing feedback on learning and teaching” (p.148).
Assessments are an important part of teaching. Assessments are a good way for teachers to monitor students’ learning and understanding. Knowing students’ level of understanding can help teachers improve students’ learning and guide their instructions. In the future, I plan to continue assessing students in multiple ways such as, asking questions, illustrations and writing to adjust my instruction. I also plan to encourage students to assess their own work so they are involved in their own learning as well as look for ways to “employ technology to support assessment
The tools and techniques used are comprehensive which helps assess a learner’s development in the area of learning like the ability to understand, analysis, and apply knowledge acquired through creative process that are evaluated. The evaluation section was divided into two broad categories Scholastic that looked at the areas which were subject specific and Co-Scholastic that included activities that were co-curricular like life skills, attitudes and values. The Scholastic evaluations was divided into Summative assessment to help analyse how much the students have learned after teaching through various medium like multiple choice questions, long and short answers , match the following , fill in the blanks and understanding diagrams in science and Formative assessment were to evaluate the students everyday learning situations during teaching to help identify gaps which help provide feedback to teachers to be able take remedial action through the use of various tools like observation, document analysis ,peer reviews ,self-assessment ,tests and implementation of various techniques like projects ,assignments , activities , making of posters ,charts ,collages ,group discussions and seminars. While the life skills activities looked at enhancing the thinking, social and emotional skills, the summative assessment looked at assessing skills like teamwork
Although somewhat vague compared to summative assessment, several key features help frame formative assessment. First, formative assessment happens while learning is taking place as opposed to at the end of content delivery. Rather, this is considered “assessment for learning,” (Chappuis, J., Stiggins, Chappuis, S., & Arter, 2012, pg. 5). The format is formal or informal, but the outcome in its use is an in-progress check of what students know and what students do not know. Chappuis, Stiggins, Chappuis, and Arter (2012) define formative assessment as, “Formal and informal processes teachers and students use to gather evidence for the purpose of improving learning,” (pg. 24). Second, this type of assessment is used to make instructional strategy adjustments. If student learning did not happen via one instructional method, the teacher must make the necessary accommodations to reteach the concept or skill. Next, it is not only used by teachers for feedback on instruction, but formative assessment is also used for providing timely, descriptive feedback to students and extends to allow for student self-assessment (Chappuis, J., Stiggins, Chappuis, S., & Arter, 2012; Popham, 2008). Formative assessment provides opportunity to provide specific feedback to students on where they are currently in their learning, and where they should be headed.
Teachers use a range of formative assessment tools and teaching approaches to gather evidence for the purposes of: monitoring and measuring student learning; providing students with feedback; and providing feedback to inform teaching and modifying instructional strategies to enhance students’ knowledge and performance in mathematics (ACARA, 2015; DEECD, 2009; McMillan, 2011; Taylor-Cox, & Oberdorf, 2013). Regular use of formative assessment improves student learning as instruction can be adjusted based on students’ progress and teachers are able to modify instructions to cater to students’ individual needs (Black & Wiliam, 2010; Taylor-Cox, & Oberdorf, 2013). Various forms of informal and formal formative assessment methods are conducted as learning takes place, continuously through teacher observations, questioning through individual interactions, group discussions and open-ended tasks (McMillan,
Education is an ever-changing part of society. A classroom teacher is faced with new challenges and obstacles that have never been dealt with before. Students come to the classroom with different life stories. Every student has strengths and weaknesses that surface in the classroom environment. Teachers must understand and focus on utilizing each student's strengths and work to improve weaknesses. Students learn in a variety of ways. The classroom must be a safe zone that appreciates student's viewpoints and allows room for mistakes. When topics in the classroom are related to "real-life" experiences, the information is more likely to be retained. Students learn from one another. The ideas and perspectives that each student brings to the classroom can bring insight into what is being learned. Students have to be allowed to explore new ideas, try them to see if they work, and sometimes fail. When students are encouraged to explore, they begin the process of becoming lifelong learners.
Through assessment students and teachers are able to determine the level of mastery a student has achieved with standards taught. Both formative and summative assessment should be purposeful and targeted to gain the most accurate data to drive further instruction (Ainsworth, 2010). While this syllabus does a good job of identifying the need for both formal and informal assessments, the way in which this is communicated does not provide enough detail for understanding. Simply listing assessment types does not give any insight into how these assessments fit in the learning process of this course. While some of the assessments mentioned could be common assessments chosen by the school or district to gain insight into the effectiveness of instruction, the inclusion of authentic assessments is most beneficial to students and demonstrates learning in a context closer to that of a work environment (Rovai, 2004). Unfortunately, this particular course, according to this syllabus, relies heavily on quizzes and traditional tests and essays to form the bulk of assessment opportunities. While other activities, such as formative assessments, journaling and discussions are mentioned as possible avenues for scoring, they are given a very low percentage of the overall grade. This shows that they are not valued for their ability to show progression and mastery. If this is indeed the case, this puts the students as a
Assessments allow for teachers to monitor the progress and growth of his/her students, help engage students and help guide teachers as well as students in their decision making. Teachers should know that tests are not the only way to assess students in the classroom. It is important for educators constantly assess their students on comprehension and progression.Teachers can take use of both formal and informal assessments so that they can engage students in their own learning, as well as monitor their comprehension and progress.
As teachers, we have to monitor the progress our students make each day, week, quarter and year. Classroom assessments are one of the most crucial educational tools for teachers. When assessments are properly developed and interpreted, they can help teachers better understand their students learning progress and needs, by providing the resources to collect evidence that indicates what information their students know and what skills they can perform. Assessments help teachers to not only identify and monitor learners’ strengths, weaknesses, learning and progress but also help them to better plan and conduct instruction. For these reasons, ongoing classroom assessment is the glue that binds teaching and learning together and allows educators to monitor their efficacy and student learning.