Most of the hearing loss presented at birth is contributed with being inherited with it. The deafness presented at birth may be caused by a condition or infection that the mother was exposed to at pregnancy. The behavior or characteristics that you may see with a child of this disability is first and foremost the child not being able to hear. This characteristic alone contributes to everything that a deaf child does because a child must communicate somehow with people. A behavior that a child may learn would be sign language.
It is a hard and laborious method and in the past often had extreme measures, that were border line abusive, put in place to try and ensure success. Manaulism is when a deaf person uses sign language as their primary from of communication. Learning to communicate using sign language is much more easier on a deaf or hard of hearing person. Although the majority of Deaf culture views oralism as a form of abuse and an attempt to “fix” their disability, instead of embracing their differences and culture, many deaf families view oralism as a way to interact with the “normal” society of the hearing world and embrace the idea of allowing their profoundly deaf children to “hear” and talk to hearing people through a spoken language. When people hear the word “deaf” many times they think of their grandparents or other elders who have lost their ability to hear due to old age.
This disability is described that the individual will have significant challenges in social functioning but will not have delays in development of language or intellectual functions. There are six distinct characteristics for Autism, they are the following: Repetitive behavior, atypical language development, atypical social development, problem behavior, differences in intellectual functioning, and sensory disorders. Children with Autism have many different language abilities that range from no verbal communication to a very complex communication. Half of the students that have Autism do not develop the communication skills needed to be sufficient in today’s society of expectations. These students will have a speech barrier when trying to communi... ... middle of paper ... ...ead on hard surfaces, or using objects to hurt themselves.
A child must feel comfortable talking about their problems in order for verbal communication to work. This communication skill is used the least do to the fact that many children have been hurt and unwilling to relive the pain by communicating. Verbal communication can sometimes take years for a child. The second type of communication is nonverbal. This communication skill is very important when working with children who are deaf or have learning disabilities.
Today there is controversy in deaf culture as whether it is better to orally train a child or expose them to signing. In this paper, I will look at the quality of speech developed in deaf children, predictors of speech development, and language abilities of deaf children who are orally trained versus deaf children who are exposed to a fluent sign language. Children with hearing loss develop speech slower than children who are hearing. Speech development can be broken down into intelligibility, noun production, and consonant production. Children who are hard of hearing are capable of developing speech with little errors in intelligibility, noun production, and consonant production, but the more minor the hearing loss, the less likely it is to be caught, so intelligibility does not become strong until on average age 7 (Yoshinaga-Itano, C., & Sedey, A., 1998).
These children tend to have “a more restricted vocabulary, grammatical errors in verb and tense agreement, and errors in word usage” (Kalivoda). Another website titled “Deaf Literacy: Research Highlights” from the Elementary and Middle Schools Technical Assistance Center, EMSTAC, provides information on several problems deaf students experience when learning fundamentals of the English language. For example, “students’ lack of exposure to spoken language makes teaching traditional sound-letter correspondence difficult” and “deaf students whose first ... ... middle of paper ... ...decrease the amount of mistakes. Works Cited “American Sign Language” 21 August 2008. Nidcd.nih.gov Web.
Whereas, in amidst of all the questions, our cognitive processes discerns critical thinking or a rationalization. Strong empirical evidence reinforces the critical period hypothesis. Case studies of individuals who are able to acquire a second language, deaf individuals that communicate via the medium of sign language or a variety of signals, extreme cases of childhood neglect all stems back to the understanding of language acquisition. If a child is not exposed to language at an earlier time frame, then little exposure to environment and society prevents acquisition of a language. By contrast, studies on deaf children indicates the arduousness in learning a language after early childhood which may have been brought by the individual’s struggle in developing mental skills.
The “deaf and dumb” stigma as well as the delayed language and cognitive development of some Deaf children concerns this topic. “Ninety percent of deaf children have hearing parents, and usually there’s a significant communication gap” (Drolsbaugh 48). Therefore, it is not that being born deaf or hard of hearing that makes children unintelligent. It is the lack of access to language in the critical early years, as hearing parents often do not know sign language, that causes later issues in education. This can be seen from the fact that the brain’s plasticity, or its ability to acquire new information and establish neural pathways, is the greatest at birth and wanes throughout development.
Education Vocabulary, reading, language skills, cognitive and executive functioning can all be effected when a child has a hearing loss. Vocabulary in children with a hearing impairment develops more slowly due to the misheard words. Often times, the gap between children with normal hearing and those with a hearing impairment widens as they age. With a small range of vocabulary, a child with a hearing loss may find it difficult to read (“Effects of Hearing Loss on Development”). Observation Without hearing aids, academic success is going to be difficult to achieve for a child with a hearing loss.
In contrast to normal students, students with ADHD have underdeveloped frontal brains, which lack of development results in slower brain activity (Cole, 2008, para. 3). Therefore, students diagnosed with ADHD generally have difficulty concentrating, which can negatively impact their performance at school. In addition, ADHD students have a propensity to show challenging behaviors, such as hyperactivity and restlessness, which often impede their learning ability (Shih, Wang, & Wang, 2014,... ... middle of paper ... ...ournal/10.1002/(ISSN)1556-7591 Shih, C., Wang, S., & Wang, Y. (2014).