What is the impact of colonialism on the economic development of Sub-Saharan Africa (Africa) or more generally the colonized countries? This is a question which has reiterated itself through the social sciences for over a century. Colonialism refers to the establishment of political and economic control by one state over another. The colonial experience began in the late 1400s, when Europeans arrived and set up trading posts in Africa. They became interested in Africa as a whole. Europeans were impressed with the abundance of natural resources. It reached a peak in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when European powers dominated many parts of the continent. Colonialism in Africa created nations and shaped their political, economic, and cultural
"The DBQ Project." What Was the Driving Force Behind European Imperialism in Africa? (2012): 257. Print.
Imperialism in Africa took root in the late 19th century when European nations divided up the continent for their own benefit. Each nation practiced a certain type of rule over the Africans of which they conquered. For example, the Germans, the Dutch, and the French used the practice of Direct Rule over their colonies in Africa. This system is characterized by the colonizers need for the colonized to become assimilated into their culture. The purpose of this was to make the African people “civilized” and act like Europeans. The governing administrations forced on the native inhabitants by the colonial power were meant to undermine those institutions set in place by the indigenous people. By taking over the community’s government on all levels,
It is said that colonialism is the occupation and control of one nation by another. In this case it was the continent of Europe occupying Africa during the late 19th and 20th century. There were many justifications for this rule over Africa. Some of the justifications were that they would bring higher civilization, increase trade and economic prosperity for Africans, Christianity and the end of paganism, human rights and the end of slavery, women’s rights and the end of polygamy, the introduction of freedom and liberty, the benefits of modern medicine, better agriculture, and modernity.
Europe, in the late 1800’s, was starting for a land grab in the African continent. Around 1878, most of Africa was unexplored, but by 1914, most of Africa, with the lucky exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was carved up between European powers. There were countless motivations that spurred the European powers to carve Africa, like economical, political, and socio–cultural, and there were countless attitudes towards this expansion into Africa, some of approval and some of condemnation.
New Imperialism began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and was a time when European powers began to pursue a structured (more formal) political control over other areas. Yet it is important to keep in mind that informal empires tend to have an expiration date. As time progresses, history shows us that one of the parties involved will start pushing for change, whether that change is for power or independence is based on the side that provoked the change. In this case, the party that pushed for change was the superior one. The push for power was motivated by greed and an overwhelming desire to control every aspect of valuable foreign areas. One of the biggest moments in the history of colonization was the ‘Scramble for Africa’, as historians (and Professor Hopkins) refer to it as. As slaves were the biggest resource of the time, the banning of slave trade in Africa in the early nineteenth century caused European disinterest in continent that they were once heavily dependent on. Although there were localized replacements, like ivory trading, they were not as effective in keeping Europe’s interest. As a result, Africa was desperate to be relevant again, their economy depended on it. Because of the ban on the slave trade, there was a sudden demographic collapse of middle aged persons, which was also counterproductive to the growth of the continent. Before the scramble, Africa was naturally
Beginning in 1880, there was a growing desire for European countries to expand and control their rule. The only continent at that time that was left uncontrolled and, in the European's eyes uncivilized, was Africa. This was the start of Western Imperialism. All European countries wanted their piece of Africa and to get it, they would let nothing stand in their way. They would change the entire government, religion, market, and behavior of most of the African nation and affect almost every person living there. An account of the impact of Imperialism is given in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart. This book shows the changes that occurred in Africa during Imperialism and its affect on the community and the people of the tribes that existed there.
The main reason for Britain’s interest in Africa was for the survival of their empire. Britain's economy has always depended heavily on trade, and creating more colonies was the way to expand their trade. Before the 1870s, Britain had little competition with various colonies. Their first act was against F...
During the 19th and 20th century, Africa experienced various influences and manipulation from Western colonizers. Westerners emerged with strong intentions to destroy local traditions and establish a solid group of supporters who would accommodate their rule. Religion, being central to all African lives, was the first on the colonizers’ execution list. Evangelists and Missionaries arrived in Africa and infused with the local African community, appearing to be supportive and empathetic towards the natives. Gradually, Africans became brain-washed and started to fall for the cajolery that Westerners had plotted. However, eradicating the beliefs that were had been so deeply rooted in African culture for centuries were not an easy task. Although many radical Africans were tolerant towards the Westerners, conse...
In the late nineteenth century, early twentieth century, western nations wanted to expand their territory. After the industrial revolution provided western Nations wealth and technology that could be used to take over less advanced societies. European powers proceeded on building empires in Africa. They found Africa to be home of many valuable natural resources they needed to fuel they industries, and supply cheap raw materials for factories. They wanted new markets where they could trade good produce by factories, and a place to invest profits. European Nations also wanted to spread Christianity, and though themselves to be superior. Meanwhile, powerful industrialized European countries wanted to gain powers by building overseas Empires. Through economic and military powers, European was able to colonize, and dominate Africa. European Imperialism had a negative impact on African’s culture; environment and was racist to African while trying to make them adapt to western manners.
The institutions of imperialism and colonialism have shaped the face of growth and development of the social, political, and economic forces in Africa. As outlined by Boahen, the extent of the “influence” that these institutions asserted varies and has both positive and negative aspects. Several of these aspects that exists in Africa are mirrored in Latin America, while others differ quite extremely.
The scramble for Africa and consequent colonization, a term used to describe European economic and cultural penetration, occurred between the 1870s and 1900. For some African states, imperial rule saw to their economic development through the implementation of infrastructure and institutions. In the case of others, little or a negative impact was felt, resulting in their present state of technological-backwardness. This regional heterogenic development has led to the emergence of two opposing views. The first being that European colonialism exploited and impeded the economic development of those subjected to it. The second is that colonialism quickened the material progress of African colonies. This essay will address the issues that formulated such views; however, more importantly, it will argue the significance of the second, emphasizing the role that colonialism played in African economic development.
...ut whether the Scramble for Africa was the spawn of typical imperialist greediness or necessity from the Industrial Revolution -- however, a conclusion that one is able to draw is that it shaped the continent and greatly contributed to its state today. The three most important imperialist powers involved in the colonization of Africa were France, Germany and Britain -- each left their deep “footprints” and had tremendous influence on the continent. France primarily made a cultural and political impact, while Germany’s legacies involved the bitter aftertaste of genocide; the United Kingdom, on the other hand, left the English language, which is a hallmark of its successes with imperialism and colonization. In essence, Africa was affected by historical imperialism to a great extent -- it remains very difficult to ascertain whether the effects were positive or negative.
Throughout history, imperialism has led countries to extend their rule over weaker countries and then colonized those countries to expand their own power. Imperialism allows the ruling countries to use the weaker countries for their resources. Colonizing other countries would then lead to growth and a better reputation for the dominating country. There are many examples of imperialism throughout European history. When many European countries “scrambled” for Africa, it seemed as though Africa had no say in anything. During the 19th century, Europe found a way to use Africa for their own growth and power. Using Africa for their resources, the Europeans colonized Africa without a second thought. European imperialism in Africa had a negative impact because of social disarray, cultural loss, and death it caused.