How Water Treatment Works?

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Conservation of water is very vital and it must be done in order to sustain every life of human being. It is very important that every consumer is able to use the water wisely and care for it properly without wasting any single drop of it as the resources of water is limited. According to a research, 70% of our earth surface is made up of water. However, there are only 2.5% of it is fresh water and the almost 66.7% of the fresh water is frozen in the ice caps in Artic and Antarctica (Deborah Zabrenko, 2011). In order to fulfil the water demands require by human beings, water treatment has been introduced. Crawford and Cline (1990) mentioned that the main purpose of water treatment being carried out is to produce water that is free from pathogens and other chemical substances, looks attractive to the users and cost effective. In general, there are five basic steps of water treatment before the water can be consumed safely, namely coagulating and flocculating, depositing sediment, filtrating, disinfecting and storing (Water Treatment Process, 2012) by referring to Figure 1 in Appendix 1. Firstly, the water will undergo the process of coagulation and flocculation for water treatment. In general, coagulation and flocculation is a process involving blending or mixing a coagulating chemical into the water that is going to be treated (Crawford & Cline, 1990). The charge of suspended particles or colloids in the water is being neutralized by the coagulants of opposite charges such as aluminum sulfate to minimize the repulsive force in between the particles and enable the small suspended particles to have a higher capability to agglomerate to each other (Binnie & Kimber, 2009). However, those particles that are slightly bigger in size formed in this process will form microfloc that cannot be seen by our naked eye (Mazille, n.d.). A lot of coagulants need to be added if the
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