Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research background One of the most obvious consequences of anthropogenic activities in urban areas is urbanization. Nowadays, more people are vulnerable to urbanization problems as the ever increasing urban population. In 2015, 53% of the world population (7.34 billion) and 77% of individuals in developed countries (1.25 billion) lived in urban areas (Population Reference Bureau, 2015), and it is expected to be 67% of the world population by 2050 (United Nations, 2012). The urbanization has improved our lives significantly, but it also brings about many problems to the environment and society, such as global warming, air pollution, traffic congestion. In most big cities, urbanization has produced striking changes in the surface and atmospheric properties, which subsequently lead to climate changes involuntarily (Changnon 1981; Cotton and Pielke 1995).
Many schools have gotten increasingly stricter on their policies, especially the schools that have more money. What about the schools that cant' afford metal detectors and security officers? American public schools are not safe, and need to have greater security measures to ensure the students' safety. The news of Columbine was all over the TV, newspapers, and in every social aspect of life. This left parents no choice but to discuss the incident with their children.
Modern tourism encompasses a growing number of new destinations and such dynamics have turned tourism into a key driver for socio-economic progress. Apart from tourism impacting the domestic markets, it plays a significant role on a global level. International Scenario Tourism contributes nearly 10% to world gross domestic product (GDP), considering its direct, indirect and induced impacts. With US$ 1.5 trillion export earnings, international tourism accounts for 30% of the world’s exports of services and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. Moreover, in the worldwide export category, tourism was ranked fourth in 2013, after fuels (US$ 3.3 trillion), chemicals (US$ 2.0 trillion) and food (US$ 1.5 trillion).
Half of India’s population are under 25, and an approximate 12-15 million workers is added to its labour sector every year. The people who live in poverty are being employed, which leads to more middle class and a more educated society. This of course supplements the growing economy, and in turn, boosts India on its way to becoming a super power. In summary, the... ... middle of paper ... ...line] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_India [Accessed 20 May. 2014].
Gentrification is defined as the influx of wealthy people in an existing urban location. This inflow of wealthier people is associated with rise in rental price, property values and changes in culture. Study reveals that gentrification is viewed negatively as a displacement of the poor population by the rich but the impact varies from place to place. Sociologists attempts to explain the this huge influx of middle class people to urban cities and its neighborhoods and the associated displacement of lower class working rsidents,the rise in the property values and the upward push of rental prices. Though gentrification brings in income, it is associated with expense to the poor and may call for increased taxes in urban cities.
In another article by Andrew Soergel, entitled, “ADP: Economy Tacks on 214,000 New Jobs in February,” there is an explanation for the increase in jobs. Soergel states “Indeed, professional and business services generated 59,000 new positions last month, up sharply from January 's revised 38,000. Trade, transportation and utilities managed to tack on 20,000 additions in February, though financial activities ' 8,000 new jobs represents the industry 's worst showing since August” (“ADP: Economy Tacks”). This increase in the amount of jobs that were generated for the month allowed more people to have a chance to get a job, which decreases unemployment. Another great description of how there was an increase in employment is illustrated in a quote said by Gus Faucher.
Constant movement of people from rural areas to cities in search of jobs and other needs is causing extreme strain on urban housing and basic services. Fast urbanization has created many challenges for the housing development authorities to access the land. There is extreme shortage of housing in urban areas as per demand. The National Building Organization (NBO) estimated that in 1991 urban housing shortage was 8.23 million and has decreased to 7.57 million in 1997 and 6.64 in 2001.In previous years, the price of land has risen exponentially making it completely unaffordable for middle income
Not only were issues of sanitation prominent to the urban poor inhabiting these neighborhoods, but to the health of the city overall. Diseases that existed in these areas were prone to spread quickly and easily, affecting all residents in surrounding areas(Johnson 108). Because of this, progressives moved to establish what they called settlement houses, their purpose was to help environmentally and socially integrate the recently immigrated population of America into these neighborhoods, as well as crating a healthier and cleaner living environment. These settlement houses contributed a number of services to the communities surrounding them, not only for the immigrants but for the entire surrounding city. These houses had a number of activities and classes to take including English language classes, child care, personal hygiene instruction, community theatre, infant care classes, and pottery and art classes and after school programs for children (Jones et.
The traditional relationship between people changed to impersonal and instrumental social relationship. On the other hand, urbanization in the developing countries differed from the process of urbanization in the West. In the Third World, throug... ... middle of paper ... ...As a member of the Third World, Korea has experienced quite an extreme urbanization. During the time when it was becoming more urbanized, it could achieve a massive economic development. But it also suffered from various urban problems as traffic, pollution, and housing shortage.
The successful process of urban areas brings problems including shortage of housing ,long journey from residence to work, migration of people from countryside to urban areas and traffic congestion. We cannot ignore them, otherwise they will be much worse in the future. What can we do? It is widely believed that sustainable development can successfully solve the problems caused by urbanization, such as lack of resources, high prices, shortages of food and unemployment. Urbanization results in a huge need of resources and causes the lack of them.