Intro The main objective of this experiment is to separate Eugenol compound from cloves through a process of steam distillation method, and to assess the effectiveness of the method. Steam distillation is a type of distillation process in which organic compounds can be distilled using steam, and does not use vacuum system. In order for the process take place, the very first step is to carefully boil the mixture in a set point, which is slightly below boiling point of water. The vapor, which is the distillute are separated from the cloves and water. It is then transfer to the round bottomed flask as the vapor condense again through the condenser. Theory Natural aromatic compounds like eugenol tend to decompose at high sustained temperatures. …show more content…
Fundamentally, each compound has its vapor pressure. In this case, the water’s vapor pressure at 100 C is 760 mmHg, which is equal to the atmospheric pressure, and eugenol’s vapor pressure at 100 C is 4 mmHg. Eugenol’s vapor pressure contributes to the vapor pressure of the mixture. Using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation (ln (P1 / P2) = (ΔH / R) (1/T2 - 1/T1)), the temperature at which water boils in the partial vacuum of 4 mmHg was determined, which is less than 99.8 …show more content…
It is comparable with vacuum distillation process in which the purpose is to lower the vapor pressure below the atmospheric pressure in order for the organic materials distills and be purified under their usual boiling point. Steam distillation is very effective in distilling and purifying the eugenol; however, vacuum distillation have more applications, purifying the product even more. In this experiment, where steam distillation is being utilized, the analyte deemed to have impurities after testing it using H NMR. Cloves are made up of eugenol by 17% percent. Theoretically, that is also the maximum amount that can be distilled and be purified; however, that is not the case. With composite errors such as human error and how the distillation process work, it is impossible to get the most pure
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Cyclohexane have a higher vapor pressure since it has a low melting point. The vapor will enrich in the lower boiling-cyclohexane. Cyclohexane will evaporate first than toluene and more gas particle of cyclohexane will remain above the liquid, which is going to contribute more to the vapor pressure of the solution.
After successfully isolating the eugenol and acetyleugenol, all that was left was to weigh each product. Once the lab was completed and the masses of the products were weighed, a 1.8% recovery of acetyleugenol as well as a 4.59% recovery of eugenol were obtained. These values may seem low, but in reality they may not be. This is because the amount of eugenol and acetyleugenol initially contained in the 25 grams of cloves is unknown. However, it is possible there were sources of error that occurred during the lab. A mechanical source of error would be spilling small amounts of solution while transferring it to different containers (beakers/flasks). Other sources of error could include incomplete reaction. This may be due to a lack of mixing
The joints were greased well to prevent vapor loss. 15 mL of the sample used and two boiling chips were placed in the distilling flask. The flask was heated with a hotplate in an oil bath. In separate, numbered, and calibrated test tubes, 0.5 mL of the distillate were collected while the temperature was recorded when each fraction was collected. The distillation was stopped when the temperature reached above 90˚. The set-up was cooled and the remaining liquid in the distilling flask were poured into a graduated cylinder. The volume was recorded. The temperature reading versus the volume of distillate were now plotted. The percent ethanol was computed.
The objective of this experiment was to use a common method of separation distillation. Distillation can be used in purifying or separating liquids, when the liquid if heated the more volatile component, the molecule with the lower boiling point, vaporizes and can be condensed. This type of separation will work efficiently when the feed mixture has a decent range between the boiling points of the components. The relationship between component’s vapor pressure to the composition of the solution is Ptotal==P1+P2, Raoult’s Law. This can be used with Dalton’s Law of partial pressure,
This implies that the vapor pressure of both benzoic acid and camphor are significantly greater than the vapor pressure of tert-butanol. In trial 4 there were less moles of camphor present than in either trial of benzoic acid, yet it had a similar effect on the freezing point of tert-butanol (Figure 3). This supports that camphor has a much higher vapor pressure than both tert-butanol and Benzoic acid. When benzoic acid was added to the solution in trial 3 in greater amount than trial 2, the temperature change was greater, further supporting that benzoic acid has a higher vapor pressure than tert-butanol. This is supported by the data, the experimental groups all reached greater temperatures, and remained liquids at lower temperatures (Figure 3). The accuracy of that recorded data may have been impacted by human error. The actual freezing points of the solutions were difficult to determine accurately due to the equipment used, although the trends overall trends of the experiment were still visible. The method of temperature measurement may have affected the outcome of the experiment. The temperature attachment for the Lab Quest 2 system was held in the test tube by hand, and likely came into contact with the test tube the solution was in. The test tube likely
Figure 1 compared the change in temperature in Celsius during evaporation for ethanol and 1-propanol over a time period in seconds. Due to its higher molecular mass, 1-propanol (60.09 g/mol) was harder to evaporate than ethanol (46.06 g/mol). Both substances had very low changes in temperature because of their hydrogen bonds and dispersion forces as well as relatively high molecular masses, those factors made it hard to break their bonds and make them evaporate.
This experiment followed the directions present in the manual for the simple distillation method. 15 mL of the Cyclohexane and Toluene solution was used in the distillation flask and the heating mantle was initially set at 25V. Eventually, our TA suggested to turn up the heating mantle to 50V because the liquid was not boiling after 20 minutes of heat. After the forerun was disposed,
Start by measuring 5.00 mL of commercial bleach in a 100 mL volumetric flask. The bleach was then diluted with distilled water until the contents reached the neck of the flask. Two grams of Potassium Iodide was then weighed out. Then, 25 mL of the diluted bleach solution was transferred into an E. flask by pipet. After that, the Potassium Iodide and 25 mL of deionized water was added to the E. Flash. The content of the flask were then swirled in order to properly dissolve the solid Potassium Iodide. The experiment was then moved to the fume hood, where 2 mL of 3 molar hydrochloric add were added to the E. Flask. The flask was then swirled for 2 minutes in the fume hood to ensure that no chlorine gas was produced by accident. The buret was filled
Introduction In this experiment, steam distillation was used to isolate eugenol oil from cloves. The goal of this experiment was to test and analyze the purity level of the eugenol oil that was isolated by applying a TLC test as well as H-NMR spectra. At the end of this experiment, eugenol oil was isolated, but some errors that occurred during the experiment resulted in impurities in the final isolated oil.
Effects of Antifreeze on the Boiling Point of Water Lab Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to see how the boiling point is effected by adding antifreeze and to discover how this happens. Brief Background: The concepts used in this lab are intermolecular forces, vapour pressure/vapour pressure reduction and boiling point elevation. Intermolecular forces are weak forces of attraction and repulsion between particles/molecules etc.. By adding the antifreeze, the intermolecular forces got stronger. Vapour pressure is the pressure that is directly above the surface of a liquid exerted by the molecules that have been evaporated.
The separation and purification of liquids can be done through 4 main methods: simple, fractional, steam, and vacuum distillation. For the purposes of this experiment, only fractional distillation was used. Fractional distillation, and other types of distillation, involves using the boiling points of chemicals to separate them into pure liquids. However, fractional distillation is only used when there is a liquid/liquid mixture where the boiling points of the two solvents are more than 40°-50 °C apart.
Introduction The purpose of this lab was to observe physical properties determined by intermolecular attractive forces, such as boiling point, melting point, and solubility. During this lab the soulbility of solids were observed. While testing boiling and melting point, the solid changed to a liquid.. By using different solids, it took different times in order for the chemical to break down, due to different molecular structures.
The purpose of this experiment was to test for quality control and analysis of a commercial product, in this case vinegar. The experiment performed determined the actual molarity of a specific brand of vinegar as compared to information provided on the bottle. The standardization of HCl and NaOH was also performed in order to understand the process of titrations. The importance of testing for quality control to be sure the product being sold holds up to its commercial value and is authentic in what it advertises to be. Quality control is a way to test the standards of a commercial product by testing a sample of the output against original specifications. Quality control is also used to protect public health and ensure the safety
The overall basis of this experiment is to take two compounds, in this case toluene and hexane, distill both and observe a constant boiling point in order to later distill a more complex two component mixture which will provide the pure compound. The distillation process begins with heating a liquid to a boiling point, in this experiment that being hexane and toluene separately to start off, the liquid evaporates forming a vapor. A stir bar was provided in order to ensure that an even boiling of the liquid could happen and therefore produce a place where bubbles of vapor can form. We then recorded the temperatures after collecting different amount of Ml hexane distillate, the same steps repeated for toluene as well. The distillate is a purified
The mixture was then cooled. Vacuum filtration was then performed on the mixture. This was done by carefully rinsing the precipitate mixture over moist, pre-weighed filter paper into a Büchner flask under vacuum. The residue was then moistened with ethanol while the flask was still under vacuum. The residue and filter paper were placed on a pre-weighed watch glass and weighed. They were then placed in a drying oven for about fifteen minutes and then reweighed. They were reweighed after a further five minutes in the oven and then again after another five minutes, so as to ensure the precipitate had been fully dried.