The Vietnam War: A Concise International History is a strong book that portrays a vivid picture of both sides of the war. By getting access to new information and using valid sources, Lawrence’s study deserves credibility. After reading this book, a new light and understanding of the Vietnam war exists.
From the outset, the Vietnam War manifested itself as a conflict that could only be settled by prolonged engagement. Because the war was fundamentally an ideological struggle between the democratic, capitalist United States and the Communist bloc of the U.S.S.R. and China, the strategy formulated by both democratic and communist advisory forces in North and South Vietnam conformed to accepted Cold War military practices. However, while initially similar to the war in Korea, the war in Vietnam soon outgrew and exceeded the expectations of U.S. strategists, evolving into one the longest and most bitterly contested campaigns in U.S. history. The reasons for this relative loss of control on the part of the American executors of the war were manifold, but perhaps the most influential forces can be attributed, firstly, to the obduracy of the North Vietnamese and their allies in the South in the face of perceived American imperialism and, secondly, to the respective international policies of five successive American presidents in regards to U.S. military action in Vietnam and neighboring Laos and Cambodia. In the following essay I will provide a relatively brief but concise outline of the ways in which these distinct yet interrelated factors contributed to a protracted U.S. military presence in Vietnam.
...Robert S with Brian VanDeMark. In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. Vintage Books Edition published by Vintage Books, New York, 1996. Original hardcover edition published by Times Books, New York, 1995.
The Vietnam War (1954-1975) was, and continues to be, a contentious issue around the world. Many analysts of the war attribute it to Lyndon B. Johnson, who was president of America from 1963 until 1969, because under his administration, the American Army became involved in combat in Vietnam. Although there were many facets that lead Johnson to make his decision and there were three other presidents, in power during the course of America’s involvement in Vietnam, who also played key roles, it was Johnson who made the decision to escalate US intervention in Vietnam.
The United States involved themselves in Vietnam for four main reasons: they wanted to contain communism, prevent the domino effect, support a very weak South Vietnam, and get retaliation for being attacked. After seeing China fall to communism in 1949, Lyndon Johnson did not want to watch the same thing happen in Vietnam. He decided that the United States must fight to contain communism in Vietnam and prevent the domino theory. The domino theory simply stated that if one country fell to communism, neighboring countries would soon follow suit, falling like a set of dominos. Essentially, Americans believed that if South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand would follow. Also, South Vietnam could not stand against the Vietcong alone because they were too weak and ill-equipped to fight. The United States believed that with good government, a large scale and ...
Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: the United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Tartakovsky, Margarita. “Bipolar Disorder Fact Sheet.” Psych Central. n.p. 2009. Web. (accessed Sept. 20, 2011).
There are four different types of bipolar disorder (Tartakovsky). Bipolar I is considered the classic type. Bipolar II is the same as far as depressive episodes, but their manic episodes are less severe. Cyclothymia is a chronic, but milder form, which lasts for at least two years. Mixed episodes occur simultaneously. And last but not least, rapid-cycling, which is where the person experiences four or more manic, depressive, or both episodes within one year.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness affects about 1.2 percent of the U.S. population (8). It is defined by fluctuating states of depression and mania throughout ones life. Those who are depressed may be restless, irritable, have slowed thinking or speech, decreased sexual activity, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, suicidal thoughts as well as other changes. Those in a manic state may have increased activity or energy, more thoughts and faster thinking, grandiose thoughts, decreased sleep and need for sleep, increased sexual activity, elated mood, irritable mood, as well as other symptoms. Mixed state is when both depression and mania are exhibited at the same time in a cycle. Rapid cycling is when episodes occur more than four times a year. This is more prevalent in women and is also more resistant to treatment. There are two forms of bipolar I disorder, bipolar disorder and bipolar II disorder. The difference between the two is that bipolar I disorder is what is typically thought of as bipolar disorder with episodes of severe mania and depression, bipolar II is when the episodes are depression and hypomania, which is milder than a full manic episode. The exact cause of the disease is unclear. The most probable case is that there are many factors that contribute to the disease.
Two types of bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder type I and type II, are most commonly recognized types of the disorder. Bipolar disorder type I usually includes major depression and mania. This is the type most are familiar with when referencing the disorder. Type II differs in that one does not experience as much mania. The exacerbation often is seen with medical problems or drug abuse. When someone has multiple occurrences, it is referred to as rapid cycling. This means that there will be four or more instances within the year when the problem is seen. Type II is most often seen in women. Finally, there are types of bipolar disorder that are not as severe as type I and I...
Bipolar disorder is perhaps one of the most tragic mood disorders today, because it virtually taunts with the affected person's mind. Bipolar disorder also known as manic depressive disorder is a mental condition in which the person alternates between feelings of mania and depression. These feeling are extreme opposites, and thus create tremendous mental and physical stress on the person affected. This unfortunate disorder affects one to two percent of the adult population. Before bipolar disorder can b e fully understood, the two main mood stages must first be identified. During an endless bout with bipolar disorder, a person experiences many stages of mania and depressiion. Different symptoms of mania included an increase in energy or activity, rapid speech, excessive excitement, extreme irritability and distractibility, a decrease in the amount of sleep needed, uncommonly poor judgment, or increased sex drive, denial, overspending, and high risk behavior. All of these symptoms may not be prevalent in a bipolar disorder patient, however, the more severe the case, the more likely all symptoms may occur. A depressed episode includes the opposite characteristics, including a persistent sad or empty feeling, decreased energy, loss of interest in activities normally enjoyed, difficulty concentrating, change in appetite or body weight, and thoughts of suicide. There are also two less severe stages in bipolar disorder a patient may go through, which are mixed episodes and hypomanic episodes. A mixed episode contains characteristics of both manic and depressive stages occurring at the same time. Mixed episodes are the most difficult to treat, because different types of medicines are necessary for mania. A hypomanic episode is characterized by less severe, less constraining symptoms of mania. Doctors often overlook hypomanic episodes. When a person experiences a combination of four episodes within a year the person is considere to be going through rapid cycling. Often times, patients need combinations of drugs, which take a while to deciper, so it often takes about a month to find the correct prescription for somone.
Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History. N.p.: Oxford University Press, n.d. Print.
In addition Ho Chi Minh requested help from the United States for many years, but each time they received this offer, they refused. This was because of their Cold War foreign policy. This policy did not want to spread communism (history1900 Page 1). Communism is the act of equality. The United States was feared. They hypothesized that the spread of communism was growing faster. If Vietnam, whole, was communist, the countries around it would be too. As the battle wages on, the French was defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Many nations were debating on how to withdraw the French out of Vietnam peacefully. This debate w...
The Vietnam War was a lengthy and fairly costly armed conflict involving the communist North Vietnamese regime known as the Viet Cong, South Vietnam and the United States. The war began in 1954 although the area was in Conflict since the mid-1940s after North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh and his political party; Viet Minh took power during the Cold War. During the escalating standoff between the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union; and at the end of the Red Scare, the United States attempted to stop the spread of Communism. The Vietnam War was never officially declared a war by Congress, but rather deemed a “conflict.” The “Conflict” began as a “proxy war” under President Eisenhower and Kennedy, but fully escalated under Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon. Although the American people wanted end the spread of Communism, the Vietnam War received a vast amount of opposition in the States, along with tons of media coverage and journalists reporting on the war. Unfortunately the Vietnam War was perceived as a failure due to many contributing factors such as the numerous unnecessary casualties inflicted on both sides (History.com).
After returning, Minh had help from the Vietminh; an organization of communist that wanted freedom from other countries. Their main goal was to turn Vietnam into a self-governed communist country. France wanted none of this non-sense. In 1945 they had moved back into southern Vietnam and ruled most of the cities. Ho Chi Minh swore to fight France to gain control of the whole country. U.S. promised to aid France, and sent almost $15 million worth of financial aid to France. The French fought for four years, being financially aided by the U.S. the whole time. The U.S. spent nearly one billion dollars in order to help France regain control of the tiny country. The only reason that much effort was put into a small area was the fear of the y. Domino Theory. The Domino Theory first showed it's head during a 1954 news conference by U.S. President Eisenhower. The domino theory is the fear of the spread of communism from one country to the next, and so on. Even with the assistance of the U.S. France could not gain the control it once had on Vietnam.