How Stoicism Impacted Roman Beliefs

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Plan of Investigation
This investigation intends to answer the question of how stoicism impacted Roman beliefs, and will focus primarily on the period of time between 300 BCE to around 300 CE. This investigation will also cover basic stoic beliefs and practices, and will briefly look at stoicism when it first developed during the Hellenistic period. This will be accomplished through an examination of prevalent Roman individuals, and will look at the influence of stoicism on Roman culture; specifically laws, traditions, and practices. In order to discuss this topic thoroughly, the sources to research the information in this investigation will include documents found in the databases ABC CLIO, Student Resources, and Ebsco. Print sources on the topic of Ancient Philosophy, including Understanding Philosophy by Joan A. Price, will also be used as sources to write this paper.
134 Words
Summary of Evidence
Stoicism arose in the fourth century BCE in ancient Greece and was established by Zeno of Citium (335-263 BCE). Although Zeno of Citium established many of the beliefs and practices of Stoicism, over time Stoicism changed according to the ideas and the beliefs of later stoics. The form of Stoicism that was practiced by Stoics after Zeno emphasized the belief in pantheism or the belief that God is not one being but exists in everything.
The Manual of Epictetus, a compilation of notes on the Stoic philosopher Epictetus, illustrates the correlation between destiny and human existence among other things. Epictetus believed that one’s ability to be happy is dependent on how one perceives interactions between other people and the events in their daily lives; one cannot change their destiny; they can only change their attitude towards it ...

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Haber, Katharine. "Cato the Younger." In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004-. Accessed April 20, 2014.
"Meditations by Marcus Aurelius (excerpt), c. 175." Student Resources in Context 2003-. Accessed April 7, 2014,
Nystrom, Bradley. "Justin Martyr," In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO 2004-. Accessed April 7, 2014
Price, Joan A. Understanding Philosophy: Ancient and Hellenistic Thought (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2008).
Sizgorich, Tom. "Stoicism." In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004. Accessed April 7, 2014.
Word Count: 1,898 words
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