How Obesity Affects Lung Function and Health

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1. Introduction
Obesity is a label given to individuals who have a body mass index (BMI) of above 30. Any individual male or female is considered to be morbidly obese if the BMI was above 40 (NHS, 2012). Being obese for a period of time can increase the risk of obesity related diseases including diabetes, heart disease and certain types of cancers (colon cancer, bowel or breast cancer) and even a greater risk of strokes (NHS, 2012). The World Health Organisation (Who) (2013) states that obesity can have a range of long term issues on the body and its organs which can cause preventable illnesses and diseases. Specifically being obese can affect the respiratory (breathing) system. Weight can put people at a greater risk of asthma, sleep apnoea, pneumonia. Furthermore obesity can cause reproductive issues for both male and females ranging from menstrual disturbances, hormonal imbalances and erectile dysfunction and in certain extreme cases having fertility issues leading to potential infertility. There were suggestions in the past that obesity is a genetic issue, however it has been established since then that the human genome with evidence from single gene mutation in lab based experiments have identified a substantial link between genetic risks of obesity, furthermore it was established that obesity is the result of a complex pathophysiological pathway involving many factors that may control adipose tissue metabolism (Knott, 2013). In (2007) The Department of Health published a report stating that there were fears that by 2050 almost 90% of adults would be categorised at obese., (2014).

2. Aim/Hypothesis.
The aim of the experiment was to support the assumption that the participant who had a higher (overweig...

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It is clear that obesity can have a negative impact on the health and more specifically on the respiratory system this can cause a range of diseases and illness over the course of a lifespan which includes asthma or the worsening of it. Sleep apnoea has also been reported along with acute breathlessness. Other risks include pulmonary embolism as well as a greater risk of pneumonia. Reproduction may also be effected for both males and females. Hormone and menstrual disturbances are suggested to potentially happen this could in the long term potentially lead to infertility or at the very least fertility issues, this could include polycystic ovary syndrome. The male reproductive issues could come in the form of erectile dysfunction and could may interfere with the morbidity of the male sperm count and again could lead to potential fertility issues in the long term.
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