How Light and Wind Affect the Rate of Plant Transpiration

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Introduction:

The purpose of this experiment is to find out if the rate of transpiration in plants can be increased using light and wind. One of the biggest problems that land plants have to deal with is avoiding water loss or desiccation (Whiting, 2011). Transpiration is the loss of water vapor through the stomata (Xu et al. 1995). Transpiration occurs through stomata of leaves and also sometimes occurs in flowers (Vodopich and R. Moore, 2011). During transpiration, the water in the roots is being pulled up through the plant (Xu et al. 1995).

Transpiration serves three important roles in a plant. First, transpiration moves minerals up through the root. It moves minerals in the xylem and the sugars from photosynthesis through the phloem (Whiting, 2011). Water serves as a solvent for moving these vital nutrients through the plant. Second, transpiration helps with the cooling of plants. Most of the cooling effect of plants is caused by the evaporative effect of transpiration (Whiting, 2011). Lastly, transpiration helps with turgor pressure. Water helps maintain the turgor pressure in cells in plants. Turgidity is how plants are able to stay upright and stiff (Whiting, 2011).Turgidity also controls the guard cells, which surround the stomata and regulate water loss and carbon dioxide uptake (Whiting, 2011).

The stomata are epidermal pores in leaves of most plants. They are formed by the separation of a pair of guard cells with a pore in between (Vodopich and R. Moore, 2011). Guard cells in dicots are bean-shaped and are attached to each other at their ends (Vodopich and R. Moore, 2011). The stoma opens depending on by the amount of water between the leaf surface and the air. If the plant is turgid, or filled with water...

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...were traced onto graphing paper. Then each of the squares on the graphing paper were counted and each square represented four mm^2. This could have been easily messed up and the surface area could have come out incorrect.

Works Cited

1. Raven, P.H, G. B. Johnson, K. A. Mason, J. B. Losos, S. R. Singer. 2011. Biology 9th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. Pp. 778-779.

2. Vodopich, Darrell and R. Moore. 2011. Biology Laboratory Manual. McGraw-Hill, New York. Pp. 359-364.

3. Whiting, David. The Science of Gardening, 2003-2010. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Duburque, Iowa. Available: www.cmg.colostate.edu/gardennotes/141.pdf. (December 2011).

4. Xu, H. L, L. Gauthier, and A. Gosselin. 1995. Photosnthetic response of greenhouse tomato plants to high solution electrical conductivity and low soil water contents. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123(3): 417-422.
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