How Enzymes Work: Demonstration Of How Enzymes Work

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Enzymes are biological catalysts - catalysts are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being altered itself. Enzymes are also proteins that fold into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site. The active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction. The active site consists of residues that form temporary bonds with the substrate and residues that catalyse a reaction of that substrate. (Clark, 2013)
Figure 1. Demonstration of how enzymes work. (Blue, 2013)

The activation energy is the energy required for a reaction to start. The lower the activation energy, the faster a
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Without these, the enzyme is unable to function. A specific type of cofactor, coenzymes, are organic molecules that bind to enzymes and help them function. Coenzymes are not really enzymes, as the prefix 'co- ' suggests, they work with enzymes, they are mostly derivatives of vitamins soluble in water by phosphorylation; they bind apoenzyme to proteins to produce an active holoenzyme (Saburchil.com, 2014). The other component of cofactors are metal ions. Metal ions, for example, zinc, copper, iron, potassium and sodium. These metal ions bridge the substrate and enzyme…show more content…
This is due to the active sites of the enzyme molecules which, at any given moment are virtually saturated with substrate. The enzyme/substrate complex has to dissociate before the active sites are free to accommodate more substrate. (The Skinners School, 2015)

Catalase, a form of protein, is an enzyme (substance that speeds chemical reactions) that catalyses to the reaction by which hydrogen peroxide is decomposed to water and oxygen. Catalase is found in all living organisms, predominately in the liver cells of mammals that live in the presence of oxygen. It protects cellular organelles and tissues from damage by peroxide, which is continuously produced by numerous metabolic reactions. Without catalase, toxic substances could attack and mutate DNA (Study.com, 2016). Every second, each catalase molecule can decompose millions of hydrogen peroxide molecules. Catalase enzymes have a specific shape to match other molecules, the substrate (Goodsell, 2014). A substrate molecule binds to the enzyme, changing its shape, making it easier for other substrates to bind, or change into the product of the reaction. Two substrates bind to enzyme which makes them line up increasing the chances of chemical bonds being formed (Maurer, 2015). Enzyme catalysts reduce
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