Elaborating on the definition of negative emotional expressions, Schwartz et al. (2012) differentiated between submissive (unhappy) and dominant (combative) expressions because they are conveyed differently and; therefore, could predict distinctive symptomatology. It is essential to gain insight into the development of these symptoms in adolescence because raised levels of internalizing symptoms over time have been found to substantially increase the possibility of developing depression and anxiety disorders (Klein, Shankman, Lewinsohn, & Seeley, 2009; Pine, Cohen, Cohen, & Brook, 1999). Aggression is thought to induce fear and compliance in others (Keltner & Kring, 1998). Therefore, extended exposure to aggression from the parent can produce anxiety and/or depression symptoms in adolescence (Rodriguez, 2003).
Retrieved February 17, 2002, from Science Direct database. Hill, T.F., & Nabors, L.A., & Reynolds, M.W., & Wallace, J., & Weist, M.D. (2001). The Relationship between Gender, Depression, and Self-Esteem in Children who have Witnesses Domestic Violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 1201-1206.
In contrast, Cicchetti and Aber (1980) have asserted that empirical support for intergenerational transmission is lacking. Kaufman and Zigler (1987) reviewed evidence suggesting that abused children become abusive parents and concluded that the case for transmission across generations has been overstated. Looking back on past investigations gives support for intergenerational transmission, almost without exception. These investigations identify maltreating parents and then interview them about their own childhood. Investigations done with and without control groups indicate abusing parents report high rates of having been abused physically during childhood (Steele and Pollock 1974; Horowitz and Wollock 1981; Oliver 1978; Kotelchuk 1982; Friedrich and Wheeler 1982).
Journal of Family Violence, 22, 487-499. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9113-z Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P. G. (2003). The Effects of Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analysis and Critique. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 171-187. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Zimet, D. M., & Jacob, T. (2001).
at., 2005). It affects the developmental process, resulting in difficulties with concentration and motivation, leading to poor academic performance, impaired social functioning, disruption in identity development, and high risk of both substance abuse and suicide (Probst, 2008). In this paper I will give a description of several research studies that explores the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) when working with children and adolescents diagnosed with depression. CBT is derived from cognitive theory and behavioral theory. It focuses on identifying irrational, distorted and/or maladaptive patterns of cognition and belief, replacing them with more realistic thoughts and thereby modifying both emotions and behavior (Probst, 2008).
Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 797-810. Osofsky, J. D. (2003). Prevalence of children's exposure to domestic violence and child maltreatment: Implications for prevention and intervention. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 161-170.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19(1), 1-4. doi:10.1080/10926770903486007 Shapero, B., Black, S., Liu, R., Klugman, J., Bender, R., Abramson, L., & Alloy, L. (2014). Stressful life events and depression symptoms: The effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 209-223. doi:10.1002/jclp.22011 Slep, A. M. S., Heyman, R. E., & Snarr, J. D. (2011). Child emotional aggression and abuse: Definitions and prevalence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(10), 783.
Researchers found that children’s externalizing issues such as aggression, substance abuse, and inappropriate behavior at school are commonly observed in children that are impact with domestic violence (Ghasemi, 2009; Moylan et al., 2009; Owen et al., 2009). Additionally, children will display poor academic performance because of the reoccurring exposure to viol... ... middle of paper ... ...impact of internalizing and externalizing problems on children who witnesses domestic violence. The study showed that children often suffer from internalizing issues such as depression and anxiety due to the violent exposure. Likewise, children often show externalizing behaviors such as aggression when exposed to domestic violence. Furthermore, Erikson’s theory is relevant in addressing the issue that trauma can have through the individual’s development when exposure to domestic violence.
Hughes, A. A., Furr, J. M., Sood, E. D., Barmish, A. J., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in parents of children with anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 40, 405-419. Kearney, H. A.
Parents who abuse are people who have been abused and neglected themselves as children(Long Term Consequences). There are links between neglect and abuse and later psychological, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal disorders. The basis for this linkage is the impact that abuse and neglect have on brain development. Researchers have found important links between interpersonal experiences and neurobiological development. Children who have been sexually abused are at significant risk of developing anxiety disorders (2.0 times the average), major depressive disorders (3.4 times average), alcohol abuse (2.5 times average), drug abuse (3.8 times average), and anti-social behavior (4.3 times average)(Crouch).