The foreclosure rate is still a big economic problem, not to mention the increasing unemployment rate. The unemployment rate has reached nearly 11% this year due to bank failures like AIG, JP Morgan, and Goldman Sachs, which have really hurt the economy. To add onto that, American car companies like Ford and General Motors have gone into bankruptcy which have depleted the number of jobs available in the United States. People are losing their jobs, have come up empty when it was time to pay the mortgages. Sadly, they are sunk in debt and can’t find work in order to support their families.
Besides wiping out the savings of thousands, it hurt commercial banks that had invested heavily in corporate stocks. It also caused a loss of confidence in the market prolonging the depression. The downturn began slowly and almost unnoticeably. After 1927, consumer spending declined and housing construction slowed. Inventories piled up, and in1928 and 1929 manufacturers began to cut back on production and lay off workers.
The Stock Market crash happened on October 29, 1929 and the Great Depression started in 1929 and ended in 1939. In the end of September and the beginning of October stock prices began to decrease. The crash was caused by the nervous investors which sold 16.9 million stocks on the New York Stock Exchange in one day. Many businesses invest most of their money in the stock market to make more money, but when the stock market crashed, so then businesses had to shut down because they have no money. Most of the nation’s banks also failed because they had to put the depositors money in the stock market to increase but when it crashed people lost most of their money.
The bubble forced banks to give out homes loans with unreasonably high risk rates. The response of the banks caused a decline in the amount of houses purchased and “a crisis involving mortgage loans and the financial securities built on them” (McConnell, 2012 p.479). The effect on the economy was catastrophic and caused a “pandemic” of foreclosures that effected tens of thousands home owners across the U.S. (Scaliger, 2013). The debt burden eventually became unsustainable and the U.S. crisis deepened as the long-term effect on bank loans would affect not only the housing market, but also the job market. What at first seemed to be an economic slump turned into a brutal crisis, and all eyes looked to the Government and Federal Reserve to help the economy.
The financial crisis otherwise known as the ‘credit crunch’ of 2007 to the present was triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the US banking system. Hamid Varzi said “The US economy, once the envy of the world, is now viewed across the globe with suspicion.” It has resulted in the bailout of banks by national governments, the downturns in stock markets around the world and the collapse of large financial institutions. It has also affected the property markets severely resulting in many evictions and foreclosures. Many economists have even considered it to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression in the 1930s. The crisis has contributed to the failure of key businesses, substantial financial commitments incurred by governments, declines in consumer wealth estimated in the hundreds of billions of US dollars and a significant decline in economic activity.
This Great Recession began with the bursting of an 8 trillion dollar housing bubble. Irrational exuberance in the housing market led many people to buy houses they couldn’t afford because the thought was that housing prices could only go up. The bubble burst in 2006 as housing prices started to decline, threw many homeowners off guard, who had taken loans with little money down. When the realization set in that they would lose money by selling the house for less than their mortgage, they foreclosed. This triggered an enormous foreclosure rate which caused many banks and hedge funds to panic after realizing the looming huge losses due to the buying of mortgage-backed securities on the secondary market.
The middle-class and poor stopped buying things with installment credit for fear of loosing their jobs, and not being able to pay the interest. As a result industrial production fell by more than 9% between the market crashes in October and December 1929 (McElvaine 48.) Bibliography: McElvaine, Robert S. The Great Depression. New York: Times, 1984.
Although this day is considered the trigger to the massive economic fallout, the American and global economies had been in turmoil for six months prior to Black Tuesday, and many other factors contributed to what’s known as the worst economic crash in modern history. With few regulations on the stock market in the years leading up to the Great Depression, investors were able to buy stocks on margin, only requiring them to put down ten percent. This caused for wild speculation, and many people funneling their life savings into the stock market, which led to artificially high prices. After Black Tuesday, many people began to believe that the banking system in America was going to fail. Thousands flocked to the banks to withdraw their money.
Investment banks were left with hundreds of billions of dollars in loans due to the fact the market for CDOs collapsed. Two major investment banks such as Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns were out of business in 2008. As a result, American spending declined, foreclosures dramatically increased, and substantial decreased in personal wealth. Many financial organizations conducts unethical business practices because they failed to respect human dignity, in the sense that such behavior hinder the moral privileges of other human beings.
By 2008, due to the failures of large financial institutions, there were severe liquidity problems within the US banking system. When the housing bubble peaked in late 2007 the values of securities linked to U.S. real estate pricing began to plummet (Stiglitz 55). This was a critical hit to financial institutions across the globe. Questions began to arise amongst consumers and members of government alike in regards to the solvency of banks due to poorly performing loans and mortgages, which in turn led to declines in the availability of credit. The complete loss of investor confidence impacted stock markets globally.