Hospital Illness of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

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Introduction/Background Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a very common hospital acquired infection, especially in pediatric intensive care units, ranking as the second most common (Foglia, Meier, & Elward, 2007). It is defined as pneumonia that develops 48 hours or more after mechanical ventilation begins. A VAP is diagnosed when new or increase infiltrate shows on chest radiograph and two or more of the following, a fever of >38.3C, leukocytosis of >12x10 9 /mL, and purulent tracheobronchial secretions (Koenig & Truwit, 2006). VAP occurs when the lower respiratory tract that is sterile is introduced microorganisms are introduced to the lower respiratory tract and parenchyma of the lung by aspiration of secretions, migration of aerodigestive tract, or by contaminated equipment or medications (Amanullah & Posner, 2013). VAP occurs in approximately 22.7% of patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation in PICUs (Tablan, Anderson, Besser, Bridges, & Hajjeh, 2004). The outcomes of VAP are not beneficial for the patient or healthcare organization. VAP adds to increase healthcare cost per episode of between $30,000 and $40,000 (Foglia et al., 2007) (Craven & Hjalmarson, 2010). This infection is also associated with increase length of stay, morbidity and high crude mortality rates of 20-50% (Foglia et al., 2007)(Craven & Hjalmarson, 2010). Currently, the PICU has implemented all of the parts of the VARI bundle except the daily discussion of readiness to extubate. The VARI bundle currently includes, head of the bed greater then or equal to 30 degrees, use oral antiseptic (chlorhexidine) each morning, mouth care every 2 hours, etc. In the PICU at children’s, the rates for VAP have decreased since the implementation of safety ro... ... middle of paper ... ... have shown that by increasing education or explaining rationale to clinicians, they are more likely to follow protocol. In order to begin a culture that allows those at risk for VAP to be especially made certain they are following safety standards closely, education on those who are at high risk needs to be implemented. High-risk patients will also be alerted on the main screen on a banner in EPIC, making sure extra precautions are being taken. The charge nurse will determine the patient as high risk. After the education plan is implemented, hopefully there is a positive outcome in education. A long-term goal is to see if the high risk patients rate of VAP occurrence decreases. Overall, VAP is a preventable infection and by increasing education, surveillance and adding to the VARI standards for the standards that are missing, the rates will continue to decrease.

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