Lymphoma Lymphoma or lymphatic cancer is a very serious and life threatening disease. In this country there is an estimated 63,900 new cases, 7,100 of which are Hodgkin’s lymphoma as opposed to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Since around the 70’s the occurrence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has almost doubled while the occurrence of Hodgkin’s disease has declined. (Steen, 1993) Lymphoma is the name given to a cancer that infects the lymphatic system.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma According to the National Cancer Center, there were approximately 9,290 new cases of individuals being diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in the United States in 2013 with only 1,180 of those cases resulting in death. It has been said that Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is one of the most curable cancers even in its late stages. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is classified as being cancer of the B cells in the lymphatic system in which the B cells grow abnormally. Unlike normal B cells, which divide and die off, the diseased B cells do not.
Lymphoma The human body is made up of millions of cells that divide continuously either for growth or replacement of worn-out cells-depending on the human stage of development. During the early stages of human development, cell division is rapid for accentuating growth while, in later years of a person’s life, cell division slows down and only takes place for replacement of worn-out or injured cells. This normal cell process is hindered by cancer cell growth. The start of cancer cell growth is manifested in the abnormal cell divisions, or rather out of control cell growth.
“Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected” (What Is Cancer? What Causes Cancer?,1). Most cancers harm the body when cells begin to divide and form lumps of tissue called tumors. However, leukemia affects cells in the blood stream. While some tumors can grow to affect many different systems in the body, some are not dangerous and are referred to as benign tumors. There are many types of cancer, some more dangerous than others. Those among the most frequently diagnosed include breast cancer, ovarian cancer, renal cancer, colon and rectal cancer, and lung cancer.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or β- Cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (β -CLL) is the disease that causing tumor in lymphocytes. The CLL cells are trying to keep the β- cells are working. Also, they try to do not accept to be under the programed cell death (Wierda & Kipps, 2007). The CLL is distinguished through amassing of lymph tissue, marrow and monoclonal B cells in the blood. Until now it is hard to treatment this disease. Researchers have found that to security the CLL cells from apoptosis need for the existence both of bone marrow and lymph node (Castro et al., 2012).
Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is an uncommon disease, characterized by a clonal proliferation of mature, post-thymic T-cells, typically CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, CD16+, CD57+ phenotype, representing constitutively active T-cells Less commonly, LGL leukemia is derived from CD3-, CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. Clonal T-LGLs escape apoptosis by failure to respond to the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway. Activating mutations in the STAT3gene occur frequently in LGL leukemia, and may play a role in pathogenesis. Autoimmune disorders are frequently associated with LGL leukemia (~1/3 present with rheumatoid arthritis).
Cancer is a broad category of the disease characterized by undefined outgrowth of cells that divide uncontrollably to form nasty tumors within an individual. The cancerous cells causing the tumors grow and divide creating new blood vessels to feed themselves in a process called angiogenesis (Veeratterapillay, 2012). The tumors often spread to other parts of the body swiftly due to the unregulated growth and dividing of the cells through the bloodstream or the lymphatic systems in the body (National Cancer Institute, 2014). These tumors grow relatively, destroy the health tissues in the body, and create interferences creating interferences that alter with normal body functions such as such as the digestive and the nervous system. The most vulnerable parts in the body that can easily beget the tumors include the breasts, lungs, cervices, colon, and rectum. However, not all tumors formed in the body are cancerous but may be resulted from other conditions affecting the body systems (Veeratterapillay, 2012). Such tumors do not spread all over the body since they do not invade the neighboring tissues within the body. These kinds of tumors do not influence the normal functioning of the body systems and are not harmful to the body.
Normal cells remain in the same area where they belong. For example, lung cells remain in with lungs. Cancer cells lack adhesion molecules which is what makes it sticky, is able to travel through the bloodstream to other regions of the body. Once they arrive to that new region in the body, the cancer cells begin to grow often-creating tumors (“Lung cancer,” 1999).
Through the lymphatic system is one of cancers best modes of transport for spreading to form new tumors in other parts of the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. Malignant tumors must be treated or will be fatal.