Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2012. p. 27–33. 9. García F, Climent N, Assoumou L, Gil C, González N, Alcamí J, et al. A therapeutic dendritic cell-based vaccine for HIV-1 infection.
Over the last thirty years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has matured. In the United States, HIV has changed from an explosive outbreak to an endemic disease; currently, an estimated 1.1 million people are infected with HIV, including a substantial number who are unaware of their status. HIV disease is a medical condition but it has never been just a medical condition. HIV disease is fraught with enormous social, political, economic, and psychiatric challenges (Wilson, et al). The nuances around HIV prevention, education, treatment, and care ... ... middle of paper ... ..., C. C., & Rowe, M. J.
United Kingdom: Sage Publications Corey Nahman. (2005) HIV drug Database. HIV drugs. http://www.coreynahman.com/antiHIVdrugdatabase61499.html Tulane. (1999)Virus Structure.
Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. Bethesda, MD: Author. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20370/ MacQueen KM. 1994. The Epidemiology of HIV Transmission: Trends, Structure and Dynamics.
HIV Research Paper There are several ways which Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can spread from person to person. Sexual behaviors are on the top of the list for HIV’s routes of transmissions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HIV is primarily transmitted through contact with an infected person’s needle, blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, or vaginal fluids (2014). Unprotected sex is the most common way of HIV transfusion because while the symptoms many have not yet emerged, the virus can still spread, stated the CDC (2014). Unfortunately, HIV can also be passed on to the fetus by an infected mother during pregnancy, delivery, or through breast milk, the CDC reported (2014).
The HBsAg particles vary greatly in morphology and are found in high concentrations in early acute infection and continue to be produced in chronic disease. . It is estimated that about 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV); 360 million are chronically infected, about 600000 die each year due to HBV associated liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma . The HBV have ability to make or express to three type of proteins (HBeAg, HBcAg and HBsAg) which act as antigen in human's body. HBcAg and HBeAg are h... ... middle of paper ... ...enabled discovery of genetically diverse hepaciviruses in a new host".
Kovacsovics-Bankowski M, Rock K.L. Science 1995, 267: 243–246 5. Landsverk O.J. et al. Scand J Immunol 2009, 70: 184–193.
REVIEW: HIV-1 and current research on antivirals, vaccines, and animal models Daniel Nelson Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents a major public health concern in developing and developed nations alike, with an estimated 35.3 million people worldwide living with HIV1.One-third of a century’s worth of research has helped change HIV from a steady and certain killer into a relatively manageable infection when treated with appropriate care. However, the HIV puzzle is far from solved. 2012 estimates suggest acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, caused by HIV) kills 1.6 million each year1. Reflecting the seriousness of the pandemic, the United States National Institutes of Health has made it a research priority, investing nearly three billion US dollars in HIV/AIDS research in 2013 alone—with similar amounts budgeted for future years2. Two major types of HIV exist: type 1 and type 2.
In mother to child transmission, HIV can be acquired in utero when the virus crosses the placental barrier, during delivery, or through breastfeeding (2). The development of Triple Action Therapy or Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) happened in the late 1990’s (3,4). It uses multiple Antiretrovirals (ARVs) that individually target three steps in HIV replication (entry inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and multi-class combination products) (2). The concept was first introduced in 1996, during the international conference on AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia. This development of a multi-drug therapy was able to significantly reduce the progression of the virus as well as decrease the death rate (4).
AIDS is thought to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century. By the end of 2004, it was estimated that 40 million people were currently living with HIV. Women account for 46% of all adults living with HIV. It is estimated that 28 million people have died of AIDS. Young people (15-24 year olds) account for half of all new HIV infections.