Hiv Aids Essay

explanatory Essay
2393 words
2393 words

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus which infects, impairs or destroys the cells of the immune system and functions. Progression of the infection (severe immunodeficiency) leads to weaker immune system rendering an individual susceptible to more infections. These infections are termed opportunistic infections. At its most advanced phase, HIV is called AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and characterised by cancers related to HIV or any of twenty opportunistic infections (WHO, 2013; WHO 2014a).

There are various mode of transmitting HIV infection such as sexual transmission, parenteral transmission and mother to child transmission.
Sexual transmission is the commonest mode of transmission worldwide through having unprotected vaginal or anal sexual intercourse with a partner who is infected. “Male to female penile-vaginal transmission” is said to be two to three times more effective than “female to male transmission”. For a female, the initial encounter of sexual activities might be associated with higher chances of transmission. Further, receptive vaginal sexual intercourse is less risky than receptive anal sexual intercourse, hence, the increase in spread amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). Oral sex is a source of transmission also but is believed to be much less risky than the above. The chances of HIV transmission sexually increases in the presence of sexually transmitted infections especially herpes simplex virus, chancroid or syphilis which are ulcerative (Morison, 2001).
Parenteral HIV transmission mostly occurs in injecting drug users (IDU) when sharing needles with an infected indivi...

... middle of paper ...

...nigeria_2010_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed: 30th March 2014).

World Health Organisation (2013) hiv/aids. Available at: (Accessed: 27th March 2014).

World Health Organisation (2014a) hiv/aids. Available at: (Accessed: 28th March 2014).

World Health Organisation (2014b) HIV/AIDS: Mother to child transmission. Available at: 12 (Accessed: 28th March 2014).
World Health Organisation (2014c) Global health observatory (GHO): HIV/AIDS. Available at: (Accessed: 28th March 2014).

World Health Organisation (2014d) Global health observatory (GHO): Prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Available at: (Accessed: 28th March 2014).

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that the antenatal care sentinel survey revealed a prevalence rate of 1.8% in 1991, an increase of 4.5% in 1996, and decrease of 5.0% in 2003.
  • Explains that benue, akwa ibom, and bayelsa states had the highest prevalence rates. globalization and sexual liberalization influence the increase in prevalence in urban regions.
  • Opines that national control efforts and long-term measures for this vulnerable population to relieve the burden of the disease need to be put in place.
  • Explains that the national hiv/aids and reproductive health survey (fmoh) showed that gender inequality plays a role in the epidemic of the country.
  • Explains that the number of new hiv infections has been steadily decreasing in the country annually.
  • Explains that hiv/aids is endemic in nigeria, and the nigerian government has put in place surveys to attain the prevalence and burden of the disease.
  • Explains that hiv (human immunodeficiency virus) is a retrovirus that infects, impairs or destroys the cells of the immune system.
  • Estimates that 75 million people have been infected with hiv/aids and 36 million have died of aids related diseases. sub-saharan africa is the most affected with 1 in every 20 adults living with the condition.
  • Explains that nigeria has a 4.1% hiv prevalence rate, with over 3.1 million people living with the virus and 1,512,720 requiring antiretroviral therapy.
  • Explains that over 30% of all brothel-based fsw are infected with hiv in nigeria, making them the highest sub-population with the burden of hiv/aids.
  • Explains that hiv/aids has been the major cause of parental deaths in nigeria. gaps in funding continue to be a major problem with the available resources not enough to cover the complexity and scale of hiv
  • Cites the federal ministry of health's technical report: 2010 national hiv sero-prevalence sentinel survey and the national hiv/aids and reproductive health survey plus.
  • Cites the national agency for the control of aids' global hiv response country progress report and the united nations general assembly special session's country progress report.
  • Describes the world health organization's (2014b) hiv/aids: mother to child transmission, and the global health observatory (gho): prevention of mother-to-child transmission.
Get Access