EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REPORT OF HIV/AIDS INFECTION IN NIGERIA
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus which infects, impairs or destroys the cells of the immune system and functions. Progression of the infection (severe immunodeficiency) leads to weaker immune system rendering an individual susceptible to more infections. These infections are termed opportunistic infections. At its most advanced phase, HIV is called AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and characterised by cancers related to HIV or any of twenty opportunistic infections (WHO, 2013; WHO 2014a).
There are various mode of transmitting HIV infection such as sexual transmission, parenteral transmission and mother to child transmission.
Sexual transmission is the commonest mode of transmission worldwide through having unprotected vaginal or anal sexual intercourse with a partner who is infected. “Male to female penile-vaginal transmission” is said to be two to three times more effective than “female to male transmission”. For a female, the initial encounter of sexual activities might be associated with higher chances of transmission. Further, receptive vaginal sexual intercourse is less risky than receptive anal sexual intercourse, hence, the increase in spread amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). Oral sex is a source of transmission also but is believed to be much less risky than the above. The chances of HIV transmission sexually increases in the presence of sexually transmitted infections especially herpes simplex virus, chancroid or syphilis which are ulcerative (Morison, 2001).
Parenteral HIV transmission mostly occurs in injecting drug users (IDU) when sharing needles with an infected indivi...
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