According to Selman Waksman , " an antibiotic is any small molecule made by a microbe that antagonizes the growth of other microbes (Clardy et al. , 2011)." . Antibiotics have been around for thousands of years . "For instance , tetracycline a common antibiotic used for periodontal disease dates back to 350-550 CCE . Traces of it have been found in the bones of human remains in Sudanese Nubia along with the femoral midshafts of human vestiges dating back to the late Roman period in Dakhleh Oasis , Egypt (Clardy et al. , 2011)." . Antibiotics are the most potent form of chemotherapy with a high success rate in the history of medicine . We can associate the "anti-biotic era" with Paul Ehrlich and Alexander Flemming . "Ehrlich is responsible for the method of screening for viable drugs to combat diseases that pharmaceutical companies use (Aminov 2010)." Flemming on the other hand is accountable for the discovery of penicillin on September 3 , 1928 . This was a live saving discovery . The 1950's through the 1970's is known as the Golden Era of discovery for novel antibiotic classes . This was the time where sulfa drugs were discovered , and thousand of other drugs were identified . We entered into the new millennia knowing that the "Golden Era" had come to an end . Globally there had begun alarming increase in antibiotic resistance . With great discoveries also come inordinate problems . From 1944 until much penicillin a common antibiotic used for many bacterial diseases had a wide scale production and its usage increased . Had it not been sent out to the warfront during WWII many of the soldiers would have succumbed to bacterial diseases . Eventually , many of the bacterial species that was intended to kill continued to survive treat...
In 1928, Alexander Fleming, a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist, and botanist, discovered the first natural antibiotic: Penicillin. All of you reading this have at some point in time made use of his discovery. Penicillin antibiotics were among the first drugs to be effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Antibiotics in general remain one of the cornerstones of modern health care, acting as something we all hope to rely on when we get sick. We could very easily name the 20th century “the age of the antibiotic,” and it would be well deserved, indeed. But time is running out.
Common diseases that were caused by bacteria and resulted in death before antibiotics included rheumatic fever, syphilis, cellulitis, and bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial agents, are used to destroy or halt the growth of bacteria. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered by a scientist named Alexander Fleming in 1928 (CDC, 2013). The new discovery of many antibiotics over the next several years led to an extraordinary revolution of medicine by considerably lowering the rate of death and illness from the d...
For many years we have become increasingly dependant on antibiotics to fight off the bacteria that cause diseases in our bodies. Many of the diseases these bacteria and microbes cause are infectious. For these reasons, it has been noticed that bacteria and other microbes are becoming increasingly resistant to the antibiotics prescribed to sick people. Many doctors prescribe antibiotics for common illnesses, yet other medicines such as home remedies and homeopathy could be used instead. As a result, we are using antibiotics too often, as many sources claim we should only be using them once every three years.”Bacteria have shown a remarkable ability to endure and adapt to their environment including the development of different mechanisms of resistance to most old and new antimicrobial agents”. Because of the frequent prescription, the bacteria and microbes that cause these illnesses are exposed to the same type of antibiotics frequently, thus they are able to adapt and build up resilience against these antibiotics. “Bacteria have developed resistance to all different classes of antibiotics discovered to date” . This is a major problem as we rely so heavily on antibiotics to treat serious illnesses that we are running out of options to treat them with. The prescribing of antibiotics for illnesses that are not life-threatening are now resulting in fewer solutions to cure people affected by diseases that can be fatal.
Antibiotics have always been some of the key contributing factors in the medicinal industry. An example of past antibiotics that greatly contributed to medicine is Penicillin. Penicillin was created in the late 1920s and received widespread clinical use during World War II by helping soldiers who were wounded and risked infection, because of its properties that prevent the creation of peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria. However, the older forms of Penicillin have been rendered completely useless because of the rapid evolution of bacteria to resist Penicillin. This has created an eternal race regarding whether people can develop the antibiotics to defeat resistant bacteria fast enough (McDonald, 2013).
Levy, Stuart B. The Antibiotic Paradox: How the Misuse of Antibiotics Destroys Their Curative Powers. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 2002. Print.
Wainwright, Milton. Miracle cure: the story of penicillin and the golden age of antibiotics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1990. Print.
This can be done in multiple ways such as changing their own surface membranes the use of sIgA proteases, an extra cellular enzyme produced by bacteria to cleave human IgA. Bacteria can even invade our own cells to avoid the immune system. They have developed a resistance to Nitric Oxide, the cells natural antibacterial.
History of American Medicine Final Paper PART I(a) With the creation of Medicare in 1966 in order to expand access for the elderly to the American healthcare system, the ways in which medicine and its corresponding industries were conducted were irrevocably changed. Prior to its inception, only 65% of people over 65 actually had proper health insurance, as the elderly paid three times as much for healthcare as young people (Stevens, 1998). The private medical sector had much more control over who they would treat, how much they would charge, and more; the passing of Medicare freed up the elderly to have reasonable access to healthcare as a consequence of a lifetime of paying into the system. The way Medicare was originally organized, the concerns of physicians and their prerogatives were kept largely in mind.
The German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich made important advances to the world of medicine. He is best remembered for his development of the arsenic compound number 606, which was used as a treatment of syphilis. As a Nobel Prize Winner and an honored scientist, fellow scientists and doctors praise Paul Ehrlich for his contributions. Ehrlich led a wonderful and intriguing life, which is greatly admired.