<http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-index.html> Wenglinsky, H.H. “Educational Justification of Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Policy Response to the U.S. Supreme Court.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 18.1 (1996): 91-013.
Roebuck, Julian B., and Komanduri S. Murty. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Place in American Higher Education. Westport: Praeger, 1993. Print.
At Hampton, his experiences and beliefs in industrial education contributed to his successful foundation at the Tuskegee Institute. The institute went on to become the beacon of light for African American education in the South. Booker T. Washington was an influential voice in the African American community following the Civil War. In his autobiography, Up from Slavery, Washington outlines his personal accounts of his life, achievements, and struggles. In the autobiography, Washington fails to address the struggle of blacks during Reconstruction to escape the southern stigma of African Americans only being useful for labor.
Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Sims, Serbrenia J. Diversifying Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A New Higher Education Paradigm.
In the early history of the civil rights movement two prominent African American leaders, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois arose to accomplish one goal, education for all African Americans. During the turn of the century, between the years 1895 and 1915 there were many theories on how African Americans were going to achieve first-class citizenship. With two separate views on how to accomplish this goal, the African American community was split in half on who to support. While Booker T. Washington believed in industrial and agricultural labor, W.E.B.
- The Author of Black Historians is Dr. Thrope. -The Beginning School-Rope to justify Emancipation -The Middle School-Builder of Black Studies -The Layman School-Untrained Historians -The New School-Professional Historians The first historian was George Washington Williams. John Rustwrum was the black undergraduate historian to graduate from Harvard. III. Fathers of History A. Carter G. Woodson-Father of Negro History ( Founder of Black History Day) B. Charles Wesley & Monroe Clark-Father of African American Studies C. Herodotus-who was Greek, Father of History in General-He wrote his history in Hodge Podgy, meaning something thrown together.
He received his doctorate from Harvard and soon served as Legal Defense for the NAACP. Now walking the legacy of distinguished African Americans, Franklin has taught at many historically black colleges and universities, thus demonstrating his attributes as a scholar and well versed leader in the Negro community. Throughout history many authors and generations of scribes have altered the events that shaped the past of a people. The Negro in particular, is a hard people to define. Many stories or two sided.
5. Dawson, Michael, “A Model of Black Utility and Linked Fate, _Race and Class in African-American Politics,” The Princeton University Press, 1994.
The passing of the 1866 freedman bureau act over President Johnson’s veto meant an extension of work of the bureau. It also included the right of military courts in the south to hear racial discrimination cases. Despite the fact the freedman’s bureau was poorly resourced with limited financing, it played a fundamental role in the creation of African American schools and was aided by charity workers in the north and with African Americans. In 1965 95% of black slaves were illiterate, but this number had fallen by 14% by 1870. Furthermore, there were increased opportunities for Black Americans to continue with higher education due to the development of higher education institutions0 such as Howard University and Fisk University 1866-7.
Everything we do not have at our birth and which we need when we are grown is given us by education. Rousseau's philosophy of education was one black people understood in the early days of the country's history; education meant freedom and one would lay down his life in the attempt to obtain learning. Slaves in Colonial America who were not allowed to learn to read and write. The white slaveholders did not want their slaves to know that people were arguing over the expansion of slavery and that some whites thought that Africans should be free. Still, slaves secretly read and wrote under lamps at night or in the woods or other secluded areas during the day.