In 1985 there were new releases from Atari and Commodore in the form of the Atari 130St and 520St and Commodore’s Amigo 1000 computer. Microsoft also shipped its Windows 1.0 operating system. Intel completed the development of its new 16 Megahertz 80386 processor while Compaq introduced its first computer with the 80836 processor. In 1987 Apple introduced the Macintosh 11 and the Macintosh SE. BM also introduced its new the new Personal System/2 computer with VGA 256-color graphics, Operating System/2 and Micro Channel Architecture.
Apple is a leader in research, development, manufacturing and marketing computers for consumers, businesses, educational and government institutions. The company’s financial success can be attributed to their innovative products and marketing techniques that stress the importance that computers should "just work". During the last thirty-two years Apple has had its share of ups and downs, this essay will focus on major events from the company’s history, current events and their most significant products. ←Thesis goes here → History The company started April 1, 1976 with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Charismatic Jobs persuaded Wozniak to build computers for resale that Wozniak originally designed as a hobby for personal use.
Steve Wozniak was a founding computer engineer and programmer of Apple Incorporated and was the main designer and inventor of the Apple I and Apple II computers. Steve Wozniak dropped out of University of California, Berkeley to work on founding Apple and didn’t return to finish his Bachelor’s degree until he was 35 (20 Most Influential Living Computer Scientists 1). Computer engineers design, build, and test different types of computers and equipment such as routers, chips, and circuit boards. These engineers make rapid advancements in computer technology by solving complex problems. Computer engineers usually design new computer hardware, create blueprints of computer equipment to be built, and test the completed models of the computer they designed (Computer Hardware Engineers 1).
“UNIX was the first operating system designed to run on ‘dissimilar’ computers by converting most hardware specific commands in machine language into an independent programming language called ‘C ’” . UNIX was the basis of AT&T’s telephone system and the government’s wide area network system. Then it became the basis of communication between engineers and scientists, and eventually the basis of communication for everyone worldwide. It has held this remarkable spot since 1969. However, in the 1990s there are competitors in the market, namely, Microsoft Corporation with its Windows NT product.
I could have a color computer for the first time and do desktop publishing at a significant speed," recalls technology historian David K.Allison of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The Intel 486TM processor was the first to offer a built-in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing because it offers complex math functions from the central processor. Then in 1993 the Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily incorporate "real world" data such as speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images. The name Pentium®, mentioned in the comics and on television talk shows, became a household word soon after introduction. In 1999 the Pentium® III XeonTM processor extends Intel's offerings to the workstation and server market segments, providing additional performance for e-Commerce applications and advanced business computing.
One of its members, Steve Wozniak, soon created another version of a computer, the Apple I. Other computers also built around 1977 were the IMSAI 8080, built by IMSAI, Radio Shack’s TRS-80, and the most advanced thus far that year, the Commodore PET. This machine, contrived by Commodore, had a monitor, keyboard, and cassette player, as opposed to antecedent devices, which had switchboards and lights to indicate signals. Apple soon was influenced by this computer, and decided to make their next computer, the Apple II, a more consumer-friendly machine, in 1979. Thus, it was enclosed in a plastic casing and came with a video monitor, keyboard, cassette interface (which stored data), and game paddles.
They also teamed up with Intel to supply its chips for the first IBM personal computer. When the personal computer hit the market it was a major hit and IBM became a strong power in electronic computers. Phoenix Technologies went through published documentation to figure out the internal operating system (BIOS) in the IBM. In turn, they designed a BIOS of their own which could be used with IBM computers. It stood up in courts and now with a non IBM BIOS, the clone was created.
The operation of the computer was based on graphic interface using a mouse to navigate it. The idea was born while Jobs visited one of Xerox PARC labs, where he noticed a prototype of a new graphic interface system machine. One of the Xerox employees at that time, Jef Raskin later switched to Apple on 3 January 1978 and eventually became its project manager. Unfortunately, because of many internal and interpersonal problems, completion of the project was losing momentum. In 1981 IBM released a brand new model of PC, which became very popular and set new standards in personal computing.
In fact, the Analytical Engine required so much power and would have been so much more complex than the manufacturing methods of the time, it could never be built. No more than twenty years after Babbage¹s death, Herman Hollerith designed an electromechanical machine that used punched cards to tabulate the 1890 U.S. Census. His tabulation machine was so successful, he formed IBM to supply them. (Constable 11) The computers of those times worked with gears and mechanical computation. Unlike today¹s chip computers, the first computers were non-programmable, electromechnical machines.
Types of DOS and when they were in Use In the early days of DOS programming, there were many variations, but MS-DOS did not start out as a Microsoft product. CP/M was designed by Gary Kildall, called the man who could have been Bill Gates. As Steve Hamm from Business Week states: "There's no doubt that Kildall was one of the pioneers of the industry. He invented the first operating system for microcomputers in the early 1970s, making it possible for hobbyists and companies to build the first personal computers. Legalities aside, Microsoft's original DOS was based in part on Kildall's CP/M.