History Of JR Group

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INTRODUCTION The Japan Railways Group (JR Group) lies at the heart of Japan's Railway Network, operating a large proportion of intercity rail service (including the Shinkansen high-speed rail lines) and commuter rail service. The JR Group comprises of 7 for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. The group consists of seven operating companies and two other companies that do not provide rail service. The operating companies are organized into six passenger operators and a nationwide freight operator. The JR Group is made up of independent companies, and it does not have group headquarters or a holding company to set the overall business policy. HISTORY Initially network of railway lines in Japan was operated by nationalized companies under the control of the Railway Institute which later came under the control of the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communication and was named Japanese Government Railways (JGR). Later in 1949, by a directive of the U.S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japan National Railways (JNR), a state-owned public corporation which operated the national railway network of Japan from 1949 to 1987. The demise of the government-owned system came after charges of serious management inefficiencies, profit losses, and fraud. By the early 1980s, passenger and freight business had declined, and fare increases had failed to keep up with higher labor costs. By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion ($280 billion at 2009 exchange rates) and the company was spending ¥147 for every ¥100 earned. By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987 JNR was privatized and divided into seven ... ... middle of paper ... ...uakes and Tsunamis counter measures and Derailment prevention measures.  Advance the Introduction of new ATC systems.  IMPROVE : The JR Group pursues higher levels of safety and implement thoroughgoing measures for reliable transport to build a railway that offers high quality transport and is used repeatedly by customers. Key Measures include: • Increasing quality of transport.  Pursue safe, reliable transport service, replace rolling stock, introduce new safety systems, increase safety of level crossings, increase facilities for turn back operations, take natural disaster counter measures.  Increase and improve guidance for customers during transport disruptions. • Create an Appealing Urban Area.  Convert two overtrack stations and build new stations that integrate with community development.  Start of nationwide reciprocal use of Transportation IC Cards.

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