1905-First Partition of Bengal for administrative purposes. Gives the Muslims a majority in that state. 1906-All India Muslim League founded to promote Muslim political interests. 1909-Revocation of Partition of Bengal. Creates anti-British and anti-Hindu sentiments among Muslims as they lose their majority in East Bengal.
He was raised in the tradition of Shiite Islam; because of the death of his father he became more spiritual and faithful. On March 31, 1961, Ayatollah Boroujerdi died and Khomeini was in a position to take up the mantle left by the late religious leader. After publishing his writings on Islamic science and doctrines, many Shi'ite Iranians began to see Khomeini as Marja-e Taqlid (Biography channel website ). He wanted to start the first “government of God” (Berlatsky 26). He was thought to be a threat to the Shah decided that they had enough of his attempts to overthrow the government; he had been exiled for 14 years.
Many believe that Muslims went along with the partition and moved to Pakistan “not because they viewed it, as official Pakistani narrative suggests, as the lan... ... middle of paper ... ...ted the title of Governor-General rather than Prime Minister, which underlined ties to the inherited autocratic British vice regal system. Both of them also died before the formation of the Pakistani Constitution in 1956, and without clarifying their vision for Pakistan. Their deaths created a leadership vacuum and political frenzy within the Pakistani government (Jaffrelot 2011). Pakistan’s ruling elite did not have the same levels of popular mandate and structure as Congress had within India. The Muslim League was made up of culturally migrant-Indian political elites who lacked the grassroots prestige of “Indian revolutionaries” such as Gandhi and Nehru (Darby 2013).
The Hindus live in India, while the Muslims reside in Pakistan, ever since then they had become arch rivals. Pakistan and India had three main wars against each other. The first war was in August 1947, when The Republic of India and The Islamic Republic of Pakistan had conflicts with each other when British’s rule ended in 1947, which led to the first India- Pakistan War. Each country wanted Kashmir, but Kashmir choose to join the Republic of India. This caused the Pakistani Government to become angry and they believe that the Muslim state rightfully belonged to Pakistan (“Wars and Conflicts Between India and Pakistan”).
In their provinces they and their parties prevailed over the muslim league,but now they closed the ranks. they wanted the muslim league not the congress to represent them at the centre . Day of deliverance The second world war broke out.the viceroy announced that india was also at war.the congress protested that they were not consulted and said india would not participate unless british accepted the principle of full and immediate independence for india.on 22nd September 1939 congress resigned from all its ministries. quaid-e-azam declared 22nd December 1939 as a “day of deliverance” . The day was intended to celebrate the resignation of all members of the rival Congress party from provincial and central offices in protest over their not having been consulted over the decision to enter World War II alongside Great Britain.
After the Second World War faced with intense independence movement in India led my Mohandas Gandhi, the British government decided to leave India. As the British left India, they broke the subcontinent into different countries based mainly on religion and ethnicity. The countries were, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan (Picture of Indian subcontinent). Among the countries, Pakistan was created with unique setting. It had two wings, East and West Pakistan separated by one thousand miles of Indian Territory (Picture of East and West Pakistan).
In 1947 British rulers of India divided India in two countries. Pakistan consisting of Muslims majority provinces and India with Hindus and other religious majority people (cite?). This partition was due to the demands by Muslims who found it impossible to live with Hindus as they were socially, morally and religiously different from them. Process of this Muslim Hindu separation was started out by Muslim educator Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who in 1857 established the Mohamadan Oriental Collage to educate Muslims in Aligarh which would later become known as the Aligarh University. In 1906, to counter the growing influence of Hindu majority, graduates of this university organized a party of their own and named it the All India Muslim League.
In the late 1940s, when the two competing nationalist for India and Pakistani failed to reach accommodation, Britain decided to partition its Indian empire (Wirsing 22). The role of dividing the empire was on the hands of a British representative (Viceroy Lord Mountbatten). He facilitated creation of a Muslim subcontinent, Pakistani. The state of Pakistani was formed with two flanks (eastern and western) separated by 1500 miles of the new states of India (Wirsing 22). The main aim was to establish a region to be occupied by Muslims in the British India.
Rebellion leaders were punished, the EIC was banned from ruling India, and the Queen’s Proclamation was created. Through several movements India worked towards gaining their independence, even though it was a lot harder than expected. In 1885, Indian liberal nationalists formed the Indian National Congress. Their first meeting was held in Bombay and the Indian National Congress organized religious festivals to make nationalism popular. Mohammed Ali Jinnah created the Muslim League in 1906 and they aimed to... ... middle of paper ... ...e about, the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress.
The Kashmir sovereign desired to remain independent but eventually elected to accede to India. Being a Muslim majority State and adjoining to Pakistan, Kashmir was expected to accede to Pakistan; since the Hindu Ruler acceded instead to India, a quarrel arose in Kashmir. The population of the Indian-administered state of Kashmir is over sixty percent Muslim, making it the only state within India where Muslims are in the majority. In the spring of 1947, an internal revolution began in the Poonch region of Kashmir, opposing the newly imposed taxation laws. In response, the Maharaja’s forces fire upon demonstrations in favour of a Pakistani Kashmir, forcing the Poonch people to abandon their homeland and enter Pakistan as evacuees, and, in response, return to Kashmir with arms.