After the discovery of DNA’s structure by Watson and Crick, scientists continued to crack the code, and DNA modification became possible when Professor Herbert Boyer created recombinant DNA (Chemical Heritage Foundation, Paul Berg, Herbert W. Boyer, and Stanley N. Cohen). He was able to create recombinant DNA by splicing the desired trait and inserting it into a cloning vector which would allow the gene to be transferred and expressed in organisms (HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, How are GMOs Made?). He continued this work with Keiichi Itakura, a scientist at City of Hope Medical Center, to create the first genetically modified organism. Their creation of “a plasmid that coded for human insulin” called Humulin would soon be sweeping the world with many concerns (Chemical Heritage Foundation, Paul Berg, Herbert W. Boyer, and Stanley N. Cohen). Although it has been debated about widespread health concerns, the production of genetically modified organisms does not impose health risks, but it increases benefits for the agricultural industry, medical field, and economy.
Web. 23 February 2011. “Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms.” Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The Human Genome Program, 05 November 2008. Web.
ARGUMENT FOR THE STATEMENT. The genetic integrity of crops has been altered by farmers in an effort to improve efficiency for over 10 000 years. They can be seen as pioneer genetic engineers, altering plants by crossbreeding them with others using the knowledge of inheritance of traits. Long before GE was thrust into the limelight, selective breeding assumed scientific status, allowing very direct control over crop evolution for the benefit of society. Plant breeding was confined to making crosses within and between crop species which occur naturally, and nature itself evolved.
This can be accomplished by incorporating genes from other organisms of by rearranging genes already present” (Schneider 1). The genes used in the GM plants either comes from other plants of the plant itself. This means nothing going into the plant is from an unnatural source. “Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods” says, “Modern molecular genetics and the invention of large- scale DNA sequencing methods have fueled rapid advances in our knowledge of how genes work and what they do, permitting the development of new methods that allow the very precise addition of useful traits to crops…” (American Association 1). In traditional breeding there is a guess and check mentality w... ... middle of paper ... ...elected and many years and a great deal of money has been put into research about concerns regarding genetically modified food.
Problems With GMOs. Retrieved February 23, 2012 , from www.ehow.com: http://www.ehow.com/info_8181702_problems-gmo.html Fernandez-Cornejo, J. (2011, July 1). Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from usda.gov: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/biotechcrops/ Goldstein, K., & Emami, G. (2011, May 25). Huff Post Green.
For thousands of years, humans have transformed their surroundings and neighboring organisms to suit their needs. The transformation first took place when humans spread seeds onto the earth to grow their own food, and continued when humans reached out to provide food and shelter to other animals in exchange for labor, companionship and sustenance. When early agriculture proved successful, the best and strongest animals and crops were chosen for the next generation. This was the dawn of genetic modification, and it is as old as agriculture itself. When speaking about genetically modified or genetically engineered organisms, an important distinction must be made.
14. "Ethics and Agricultural Biotechnology." International Service for the Acquisition of the Agri-BioTech Application . ISAAA, Nov 2006. Web.
Background: Some foundational understanding of the technology underlying TC production is necessary to adequately consider the issues at hand. To modify crops biologist use recombinant DNA (rDNA). This consists of extracting a gene producing a desirable trait from one organism and inserting it into the organism to be modified. Taking a gene for a desirable trait from a plant and amplifying its effect is also a method of genetic engineering using rDNA. The sources of genetic material to insert are almost boundless, crossing bounds between species and even forms of life.
Plants Profile. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from USDA NRCS: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GLMA4 Pedersen, P. (2007, October 17). Soybean Aphid. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from Iowa State University Soybean Extension and Research Program: http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soybean/diseases_aphids.html Ragsdale, D. (2009). Soybean Aphid.
It’s created by injecting genes/DNA into it so it could change how does the plant normally grown into GM Plants. A description of the inserted DNA, including any genetic rearrangements, deletions or truncations that may have occurred as a consequence of t... ... middle of paper ... ...isks of allergic reactions to biotech proteins in foods: perception and reality. Allergy, 60(5), pp.559--564. OECD, 2010. Consensus Document on Molecular Characterisation of Plants Derived from Modern Biotechnology.