The late 19th century and the beginning of the early 20th century marks a critical turning point in Chinese history. The high pressures of western imperialism and regenerated peasant revolutions caused a sudden shift in the Chinese social order. The fear of western imperialism caused a demand for modernization, self-strengthening, and defense. Sons of the traditional landlord-bureaucratic lost confidence in Confucian values and traditional institutions; this elite class was too weak to withhold foreign invasion. The sons of the gentry, soon became the most important contributors to the revolution that would rise up against the Confucius bureaucrats intellectuals.
Strong nationalism and anti-foreignism acted as hindrance to reform effort. Yet, it could be witnessed that the force of change began to surpass the force of continuity and gained significance in Late Qing period. This was a result of foreign pressure that awaked the Chinese. Nevertheless, this awakening was too late to save China. The revolutionary movement became so intense that finally in 1911 the Qing dynasty was overthrown.
The Revolution that Changed the Chinese Society As it’s known around the world, Chinese political system is Communism. Some may say that communism is good and bad. Well it all began when Mao Zedong came into power, his ideas influenced Chinese people and how the true way of living is. The introduction of communism into China changed how people perceived each other. One of his first ideas was “The Great Leap Forward,” which a lot of historians considered as a failure because its initial goals were never met.
The Communist using of the Kuomintang army soon captured the important cities in the Yangtze valley and set up a new national capital at Hankow. Chiang and the non Communist forces meanwhile captured Nanking and the rich seaport of Shanghai. This was benefit for both Communists and Nationalists in the Long term. 1927 was a bad year for the Chinese Communists. Their influence in the Kuomintang was destroyed and when Chiang turned on them the Communist dominated the government they had set up at Hankow during when the Northern Expedition collapsed.
By the early 1600s, however, the Ming dynasty had grown weak and corrupt. Famine and rebellions ravaged the country. In Chinese terms, the Ming had lost the Mandate of Heaven, the traditional right to govern. In 1644, Manchu invaders from the north stormed into China and seized power with the aid of gunpowder weapons. They formed a new dynasty, the Qing (ching), which means “pure.” The Manchus came from Manchuria, a region just north of Korea.
England was intent on opening up trade with China as was true with the other imperial powers. Several wars was led by Chinese denials for trade on England’s terms which eventually concluded by imposing unequal treaties that by the end of the century threatened to carve up China like a melon. In China at this time a second key topic is that of the internal crises that were occurring: famines, the rebellions, and explosive population growth of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Many of these issues were not new to the empire, but coming at the same time as foreign encroachments, therefore, the extent and the timing of their challenge was crucial. A third major topic is the extent and nature of the changes that were required, and the dialogue within China about how best to respond to these combined challenges.
The Song Dynasty had a lot of problems, in 1069 Emperor Shen Tsung appointed Wang An-shi as chief minister. Wang was a scholar who studied earlier Chinese governments. Wang noticed the corrupt government and made huge reform in the government. His reforms were based on the text of 'Rites of Chou'. Wang tried to get honest, intelligent officials by improving the university system.
The Han dynasty set the pattern for Chinese history by causing growth in the economy and the promotion of Confucianism as the state philosophy. The Qing dynasty was ruled by Empress Wu, but a rebellion during this dynasty ended the dynasty reign. This led to China in the 20th century which includes the Treaty of Versailles, the People’s Republic of China, and, most importantly, Communism. Sun Yat-Sen, who created the Republic of China in 1912, entered alliance with the new Comm... ... middle of paper ... ...he goal of communism to work towards the benefit of the whole, many would argue that this is not being accomplished in China today. The information that the Chinese government feed to their people is affecting their citizen’s ability to decipher from what is true and what is false.
Due to this hesitancy, the Chinese public perceived them as weaker. The KMT army was, in fact, weaker. Eventually the aggressive military tactics of Mao Zedong crushed the KMT. Finally, the ideological differences on mass mobilizations between the CCP and KMT played a huge role in the CCP’s success. The CCP’s communist ideology led to mass mobilization being a crucial element to their revolutionary plans.
After the war the treaty of Nanjing was imposed on the Chinese to pay for Britain’s war expenses and provided Britain with Hong Kong. Out of these events nationalism began to grow in China and many Chinese came to see the emperor as ineffective. After settling many internal problems the Chinese reformers began the “Self strengthening” movement. This movement’s goal was to reform China using modern European techniques. Many of the reformist and traditionalist came into conflict with each other.