Christianity was a monotheistic religion whose practices sharply contrasted the polytheistic religious practices of the Roman Empire. The followers o... ... middle of paper ... ...ers engrossed the new practices of Christianity. They no longer desired to defend the Roman state and its people. As a result, the Roman army drastically diminished and could no longer defend its borders. Finally, with the establishment of Christian churches and the roles of the Bishops and the presbyters, the authority of the pontiffs and the Pontifus Maximus greatly decreased.
One of the main ones was that the papal authority and credibility were damaged. This was done through, Avignon papacy, - a time where the headquarters of the Holy See had to be moved from Rome to Avignon, it brought uncertainty to the people, as they did not trust the Pope, and believed the Pope favoured the French. Following this, the Great Western Schism also contributed to the loss of papal authority as it split Christian Europe into hostile camps, because three different men were claiming to be the true Pope, each having some support from different kings and princes of Europe. Finally, the corruption of the Renaissance papacy, such as that of Alexander VI (who did not keep the celibacy vow) resulted in loss of papal credibility. As the Holy See was not as powerful anymore, it was suffering from attacks on the papacy.
Russia had now become a police state. As people are attacked for open thought and speech, this furthermore proves Tolstoy's argument, "autocracy is outdated". "The policy of censorship continued to produce meaningless bans" indicates that the government was out of touch with the Russian citizens. This situation could be compared with Nazi Germany because Russia appears to be a police state. Religious persecution was at its worst, which shows that the Tsar was very dependant on Orthodox Christians because they believed he was ordained by God.
This control is what the English Reformation was... ... middle of paper ... ...tury religion and politics and since his death has figured prominently in historians explanations for the breakdown of consensus and the coming of civil war.”(Mason, 1095) Archbishop made a lot of enemies and was hated by many during his time of influence. The opinions of Laud can be understood through Mr. Grymstons speech to Parliament upon the impeachment and accusation of the Archbishop of Canterbury. “Mr. Speaker, hee hath beene and is, the common Enemy to all goodnesse and good men, and it is not safe, that such a Viper should be neere his Majesties person, to distill his poison into his Sacred eares, nor is it safe for the Commonwealth, that hee should fit in so eminent a place of Government…this man is the corrupt Fountaine that hath infected all the streames, and till the fountaine be purged, wee cannot expect to have any cleere Channels.”(Grymstons, 5)
He felt it encouraged superstition and pagan thoughts of magic, bringing them further from the true faith of the Christian beliefs. Luther’s most important criticisms had to do with the Catholic Theology. His argument was this: The Church had gotten away from the fundamentals of the... ... middle of paper ... ...lvinists, which was the catalyst to the Hundred Years War. The Catholic church was losing ground physically and in the hearts of the people. While there were still a great many who remained loyal to Catholicism, there were still people like Calvin, King Henry VIII and Luther who felt the need to call the Catholics out on the problems within their faith, and how it was affecting everyone else.
It has been argued that the pre-reformation church was a corrupt and failing institution and therefore Henry had to totally overthrow the running of the church and appoint himself as the Supreme Head in order to reform church practice. Traditionally many historians have argued that the people of the early sixteenth century agreed with Henry in his decision because the church in England was a deeply unpopular institution. Anti-clericalism according to this line of argument was widespread. As G R Elton puts it, "People in England thought little of Priests". The clergy were widely despised.
The popes had become skittish about calling ecumenical councils because of the heresy of Conciliarism. The weakness that the Avignon Papacy and the Western Schism caused the Papacy led to Conciliarism. Conciliarism held the idea that a general council was greater and than that of the Pope. In fact, a council had no authority in Church matters unless called and approved by the residing Pope. Hence, by the time the Fifth Lateran Council closed in 1517, it had failed to reform the abuses that were going on in the Church.
Although the Church England was no longer in compliance with the Roman Catholic Church, it nevertheless, remained Roman Catholic in looks and feel. The one major change Henry implemented was the dissolution of the monasteries and convents. Since the monastic orders owed allegiance to the Pope, Henry could not tolerate them in England. Henry confiscated their land and wealth and distributed it to his supporters. In contrast to his father, Henry, Edward VI allowed sweeping changes within the Church of England.
During the 16th Century there was a religious revolution in Christianity throughout Europe. Martin Luther, a German monk, revolted against the Church because of what he saw as hypocrisy of the Catholic clergy and authority against Biblical beliefs. This was counter acted by the Catholic Church in an internal, peaceful and reform minded Catholic Reformation and by a conflicting and fighting Counter- Reformation to stop the spread of his teachings. Martin Luther believed the Clergy’s blatant disregard of duties and rules and the selling of indulgences justified his revolt while the Catholic Church disagreed both internally reforming the Church though rules and regulations and by counteracting and fighting though enforcement to stop it. Martin Luther revolted against the Catholic Church because of what he saw as hypocrisy of the authorities and clergy with their disregard of duties and rules which was against Biblical beliefs.
First, the shift from a Hunter-Gatherer society to an agriculturalist civilization was tremendous. The innovation of various occupations, government, and gender roles all stemmed from the adaptation of agriculture. As food sources became more stable and in a central location, people could now focus on other occupations rather than simply looking for food. From this shift, many more occupations began which included sculptures, artists, carpenters and much more. This also allowed for more advanced infrastructure in their cities.