By researching literature, it has been found that poverty is a large issue affecting many Indigenous Australians lives. These examples of issues causing Indigenous poverty have found, that the loss of land faced by Indigenous Australians both historically and now is resulting in Aboriginal poverty, the pollution on the environment causes Indigenous poverty by affecting their health and isolating them and the exclusions of social provisions that Indigenous Australians face do not allow for a healthy wellbeing, evidently resulting in poverty. Overall, to address the issues one must be culturally appropriate. A research approach can also be effective in addressing the issue. Therefore, the issues must be addressed so Indigenous Australians can have fairness amongst all areas of life.
Ever since the foundations of modern Australia were laid; there has been a disparity between the health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and rest of the Australian community (Australian human rights commission, n.d.). This essay will discuss how this gap can be traced back to the discriminatory policies enacted by governments towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’s throughout history. Their existing impacts will be examined by considering the social determinants of health. These are the contemporary psycho-social factors which indirectly influence health (Kingsley, Aldous, Townsend, Phillips & Henderson-Wilson, 2009). It will be evaluated how the historic maltreatment of Aboriginal people leads to their existing predicament concerning health.
However Indigenous culture in Australia has been deeply affected due to the colonisation, since they had suffered severe injustices. This essay will discuss some difficulties that Indigenous Australians had to face include issues of health, stolen generations and poverty. One of the most devastating effects that the European settlement caused in the indigenous Australians has an implication with health issues. When white people arrived in the new land, Aboriginal population suffered from new diseases, as a result there was a disruption in their habits and lifestyle (Tourism Australia 2014). As Nerelle (2012, p. 5) explains that the complexity of health for Indigenous Australians encloses not only the physical conditions, but also the social and spiritual conditions and after the arrival of Europeans this conception of health was relegated.
2. Compare and contrast the segregation and assimilation policies in relation to the impact they had on the Aboriginal family life. Aboriginal family life has been disrupted and forcibly changed over the last two hundred years, as a result of the many segregation and assimilation policies introduced by Australian governments. Often a combination of the two was employed. The policy of segregation has impacted upon Aboriginal family life, for through this policy, Aboriginals were restricted and prohibited to practice their traditional culture, hence, resulting in the loss of their Indigenous identity and limiting the cultural knowledge for future Aboriginal generations.
The legacy consists of poverty, powerlessness, and the breakdown of social cohesion that plague so many Aboriginal families and communities. These conditions did not come about by chance or failure to modernize. They were created by past policies that systematically dispossessed Aboriginal people of their lands and economic resources, their cultures and languages, and the social and political institutions through which they took care of their own (Brant-Castellano 2001:5). Due to colonial and imperial impositions the majority of Canada’s Indigenous population is amongst the most highly excluded, poverty stricken, oppressed, and disadvantaged groups. Within the past half century, Aboriginal peoples have been relentless and determined in their struggle to attain self-determination, maintain their treaty rights and dispute rightful control of land possession matters.
Another issue which commonly affects the Aboriginal population, inhibiting the experience of good health, is culture clash which consistently lead to social exclusion and societal assimilation. Urquhart (2009) identifies social exclusion as the fourth of ten social determinants of health and is often a result of culture clash. It is very important to recognise that culture clash is a cultural issue which gives rise to certain discrepancies that highly influence Aboriginal health. These discrepancies are complex and interspersed factors such as ethnocentrism, segregation and oppression, which all result in the social exclusion and societal assimilation of Aboriginals. Ethnocentrism is described as the tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to all other cultures (Cooper, 2012).
Physical factors relate to the physiology of an individual. Indigenous Australians have a high burden of disease due to diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and obesity (Nelson, Abbott & Macdonald, 2010, p. 498). Physical inactivity is also extremely high when discussing burden of disease (Nelson et al., 2010, p. 498). Having poor physical health reduces participation in leisure activities for this group. Mental factors for indigenous Australians were either considered positive or negative.
As discussed above, the histories of Colonialism, and Capitalism has played a significant role in the construction and impact of how Native people are treated in modern Canadian society. As a result of the British invasion of Canada, the colonies that forced in the Aboriginal people into assimilation gave much grief that is reflected in their lives today. Presently, the state continues to shape the construction and social reproduction of racism, Racialization, and sexism as experienced by Aboriginal people in Canada through institutional and systematic racism. Today the failures of Canada's racist policies toward Aboriginal peoples are reflected in the high levels poor education, unemployment, and culture oppression. Which poses the question: Canada: Whose home and native land?
All of this was occurring centuries before the Europeans arrived. Since colonisati... ... middle of paper ... ...life but also take it. Today, Native Americans are dying of diabetes, alcoholism, tuberculosis, suicide, and other health problems at shocking rates. Compared with Anglo Americans, they have a much higher death rate and the situation is not improving. Native Americans are amongst the most disadvantaged and poorest.
This essay will explore the significant and negative impact on the Indigenous communities and how policy decisions have impacted and continue to impact the Indigenous communities. This essay will also outline why there have been significant policy shifts over time, the current issues in delivering services to Indigenous Australian’s and why these issues have emerged. Indigenous communities suffer the worst health in Australia and are most at risk to many illness’s compared to other Australian’s. “The poor health experienced by Indigenous people reflects the disadvantage they experience, as many Indigenous communities do not have access to quality health care and to clean water.” (Reconciliaction Network, p.1) The specific health concerns for Indigenous Australian’s are the higher rate of diabetes, higher mortality rate with cancers, cardiovascular disease is more common, eye conditions, higher risk of smoking which contributes to other health impacts, ear disease w... ... middle of paper ... ...fficient training for health workers, communication barriers, a general mistrust in the health care system and culture shock has contributed to issues in delivering services to many Indigenous communities. The reason to why these issues have emerged is a result of two main factors, the lack of health services that are needed to address the issue and the silence of Indigenous communities which leads to misunderstanding between the government and Indigenous communities.